Boot with DEFENDER "REEL 1" in drive 1. If you have a second drive load it with DEFENDER "REEL 2".

Choose your character on the character selection screen by moving the sword cursor to one of the four Saxons and pressing the left mouse button.

When the game begins, choose your actions by moving the cursor to highlight options on the game menus. Click the left mouse button to make your selection. Note that the following main menu actions end your turn: HOLD JOUST, GO RAIDING, BUY ARMY, END TURN, and attacking a territory. You may escape from some options (like GO RAIDING) by clicking away from the map when prompted to Select a Territory.

To build your home army choose BUY ARMY from the main menu. Then click on soldiers, knights, catapults or castles. (Clicking the right button will allow you to buy 5 items at a time.) To refund a purchase simply click on the word "cost" at the top of the menu. Now you may exchange any items you just purchased for gold.

You need at least five gold to host a jousting tournament. When other lords hold tournaments, the code of chivalry requires you to attend, but for free. (Your first joust will always be with the host of the tournament.)

You have control in the joust when your opponent begins charging toward you. Aim the tip of your lance at the centre of the "x" in his shield. When you hear the clank of metal on metal, you must IMMEDIATELY push the left mouse button. If you don't push the button at the right item, or the lance isn't lined up correctly you will miss, and you risk killing his horse! (The message following the joust should give you valuable clues about your performance.) Your opponent may also miss (especially if he has a low joust rating), giving you another chance.

NOTE: You must have spare land to joust for territory!

Your campaign army is represented on the map by the mounted knight. from the SEEK CONQUEST menu, select MOVE ARMY to capture hostile or undefended territories, and to move through friendly ones. (MOVE ARMY is the default option and need not be highlighted - just click on a territory.) You may get Robin's help before attacking by choosing SEE ROBIN, or by clicking on Sherwood Forest on the map.

To transfer forces between your army and your territories select TRANSFER MEN. The arrow at the top of the menu shows you the direction of the transfer. To move men back into your campaign army click on the arrow to reverse its direction, and then repeat the transfer process.

Move the mouse left or right to move your character forward or send him retreating back. Click the left mouse button to attack and use the right button to parry. (A successful thrust will cause your opponent to jump back.) You want to thrust at your opponent when his sword is pointing up; this is when he is most vulnerable. Defend yourself by parrying and keep an eye on the strength bar at the bottom of the screen. Escape to the left if your strength is running low. (To ask for Robin's help during a raid, select Sherwood Forest at the SELECT A TERRITORY prompt.)

You must buy a catapult AND TRANSFER IT TO YOUR CAMPAIGN ARMY before you can attack a territory occupied by a castle. To begin the siege simply choose your ammunition. But remember, you must first knock a hole in the wall with a BOULDER before you can fire DISEASE or GREEK FIRE into the castle. Push the left mouse button once to pull back the catapult arm. (It moves back automatically.) Then push it again to fire. The farther the arm is pulled back the farther the object will travel; aim for the top of the wall first, then lower your aim to destroy it piece by piece. An undamaged castle nearly doubles the defending army's effectiveness in the battle following the siege. The advantage decreases proportionately with each hit to the wall. Launch GREEK FIRE and DISEASE over the wall to reduce the size of the defending garrison. (Disease is more effective the earlier it is used in the siege.) Select BEGIN BATTLE if you want to end the siege early.

NOTE: The battle will begin automatically after 7 days. To completely knock the wall down you must hit it with a boulder 7 times in a row.

Animated figures on the screen represent the armies. Move the highlight to change tactics during the battle. (To retreat you must highlight the option WILD RETREAT and press the left mouse button.) Your tactic determines how both armies fight according to the strength table below. For example, you might choose OUTFLANK ENEMY if you think your leadership rating is higher than your opponent's. Knights outlast soldiers and provide an army's striking power - avoid losing them at all costs.

NOTE: The battle will proceed on its own but you may speed up the action by repeatedly clicking the left mouse button on a tactic.

-------- ------- ---------
Stand and fight 1 6 0
Knights charge 1 8 0
Outflank enemy * 1 6 0
Catapult barrage 1 6 16

* Outflank doubles the effect of leadership.

* Leadership can turn the tide of the battle. A strong leader increases an army's effectiveness while a weak leader has no effect. You can increase your chances in battle by jousting to improve your leadership rating.

* Raiding in a good way to weaken a stronger opponent, especially in the later stages of a game. Try to steal his gold with a raid--immediately after he attacks you.

To win the game you must know your opponents, and that means knowing their ratings. One of your first actions in each game should be to use the READ MAP option from the SEEK CONQUEST menu. Look at the opposing lords' home territories and look at their ratings. BE WARNED, the SPY option yields valuable information but it isn't cheap. Be sure to use it sparingly or you may find your coffers empty.

To learn how to joust, choose Wolfric as your character and spend a game holding tournaments. To practice swordfighting, choose Geoffrey and spend a game raiding castles.

Many strategies can lead to victory, and a strategy that works in one game may not work in another. Observe the ebb and flow of battle in each game and set your strategy accordingly. Remember, the Saxons are a nervous lot and some games may require an alliance by force of arms.

If Saxons have captured all the Norman castles, the game isn't quite over. To win, you must attack and capture all three Norman castles, even if they are being held by Saxons.

Try moving the lance in a circular motion and be sure to keep it in motion. The important thing to remember though, is to push your button as soon as you hear the CLANK.

A time for heroes. A time of bitter strife, when great men rise above their peers to perform great deeds. A chapter of history is in the making.

Your liege the king is dead, the throne vacant. Britain enters a season of destruction, a winter of killing that can end only when the last brave Saxon knight lies dead or the castles of the Norman's lie in heaps of rubble, emptied of the foul oppressors who have enslaved your people.

It is a time when foreign invaders shall learn truths administered by the shining blades of Saxon swords. It is a time when heroes are made, and legends are born.

Six great lords will vie for the throne; their castles dominate the island nation. In the south are the three Norman castles, to the north are the homes of the three Saxons. If a Saxon lord captures every one of the Norman fortresses, he will win the throne.

Your advisors will decipher the map for you. Indicate to them what interests you -- they know the value of the lands that lie before you, and can estimate three strengths and weaknesses of your enemies. Pay careful attention to their words. The knowledge can help you achieve success.

What portion of your treasury will you devote to conquest? How much will you spend on defence? Knights dominate the field of battle, but only catapults will reduce the massive walls of a Norman castle. remember the defence of your castle -- mounted knights are useless atop the battlements. You need stout men-at-arms, and the more the better.

The army you build here defends you castle when you're at home, and spearheads campaigns of conquest. When your army is on the march, the ranks will be bolstered by vassals from the lands in your possession, but the vassals are too far away to be called upon when your castle is under attack.

After successful campaigns, income from new dominions fills your treasury, but the burden of defence will be greater as well. Build castles to defend your lands. Without castles to stop them, invaders will sweep through your territories before you can respond. A line of imposing castles along your borders will make a potential invader think twice before entering your domain.

1. Familiarise yourself with your surroundings. Select "Read Map" from the menu. Inspect the territory around your castle, then size up your opponents.

2. Select "Build army" from the menu. Two columns show the cost of men and weapons, and the size of your home army. Your home army is the garrison of your castle -- add knights, men and catapults to this force as your treasury allows.

3. Men-at-arms are the least expensive military commodity, and the core of an army's strength, valuable at home for defence or in fields of conquest. Fighting on horseback, knights are useful mainly for attack -- they can splinter a defending army with a single terrifying charge.

Although you start with a modest income from your feudal estates, one or two forays of conquest can exhaust the treasury. Increase your income by adding new lands to your domain -- some territories are richer than others, but each one contributes wealth to the treasury.

At first, turmoil caused by the death of the king presents an opportunity to those who act quickly. Throughout the land there is anarchy -- how can sheriffs collect taxes without the power of a king behind them? None of the lands has an overlord, and those surrounding your castle can be taken quite easily, indeed. Move too slowly, and the other lords may grab the lion's share of the territories before you've passed through your castle gates.

William the Conqueror understood the art of medieval warfare and knew the importance of castles; in fact, he might not have been able to subdue the Anglo-Saxons without superior weapons and tactics. Englishmen could rise with great courage to meet a national emergency, and in the dark months of 1066 they fought two great battles in the north against Viking invaders before meeting William and his Norman's at Hastings.

William defeated the English at the end of a long bloody day, his men fighting on horseback with swords and lances against an enemy that still fought on foot and favoured the battle-axe. But Saxons were slow to accept defeat, and rebellions led by Edgar the Aetheling and Edric the Wild upset the Norman's' plans.

William set about building castles. He constructed dozens of fortresses to consolidate his gains and provide bases for further advance. Again the Norman's demonstrated superior skills erecting the powerful castles on well- chosen sites. Towering above the landscape, William's castles controlled the countryside for miles around with their mere presence. Saxon resistance continued for many years, but the Norman's' hold on England was secure.

In medieval Europe, land was held by vassals in exchange for military and other services given to overlords. When you venture from your castle in search of conquest, vassals from your lands form the foundation of your campaign army. Bolster the ranks by shifting men and weapons from your home army, but remember -- the careful general leaves behind a strong garrison to protect his castle unless he plans to stay close to home.

What path will you take on the road to conquest? Should you strike early at the Norman's, or capture lands in the north and take time to build an invincible army? The course of your campaign may take you through Saxon land, Norman Territory or unoccupied areas, but remember -- if enemy territories lie across the path to your chosen destination, you'll have to capture them before continuing on your way.

Capturing undefended territory is easy, laying siege to a castle much costlier and far more difficult. When you begin a siege, remember that boulders can reduce a castle wall, but only Greek fire and disease will reduce the numbers of the castle's defenders. Operating a catapult requires a steady hand and an eye for distances. Ammunition can vary in weight, and a catapult setting that launched a great boulder directly into the castle wall may hurl a smaller stone over the highest tower.

Castles were built to be impregnable, and there are many examples of tiny garrisons holding out against large armies for months on end. Capturing a castle required a great deal of preparation, including the construction of great siege towers and stone-throwing engines to bombard the castle walls.

The catapult, or mangonel, was probably the most common of these and was very much a standard feature of siege warfare. The larger catapults could hurl stones weighing up to 600 pounds. The owners of giant siege engines were fond of giving them nicknames -- in 1304, a stone-throwing device known as Warwolf was used at the battle of Stirling. Philip Augustus, a warlord who preyed on the luckless King John, called his favourite siege weapon Mal Voisin (which means Bad Neighbour).

Ammunition for catapults was by no means limited to stone balls. Greek fire was the secret weapon of the period -- thought to have been mixed from ingredients like oil, pitch, resin, sulphur and quicklime, it started fires that could not be extinguished with water alone. In a siege, almost anything was fair game for hurling over a castle's walls, including diseased meat. Many an attacker loaded his catapult with a dead horse, hoping the projectile would spread disease among the defenders.

If you meet the enemy in the field, keep tight control on your men - issuing the correct orders at the proper time is the key to success as a general. Attacking with ferocity is a gamble. It can save a day that appears to be lost, but it can also be the undoing of a great army that might have won with a more conservative approach. Also, know when to give up the field. Dishonour is preferable to the loss of your last knight.

Each territory in your domain contributes vassals to your army when you begin a campaign. They will fight with valour, but can't be expected to stick around for extended campaigns. Desertions begin to mount as one battle follows another. After you return home from a campaign, the ranks of your vassals -- depleted by combat and desertions -- will be replenished over time.

1. Any castle or territory may be attacked, Norman's or Saxon. The reverse is also true -- you may be attacked by Saxons, even though they are allies in the fight against Norman rule. Chivalry was a club, and some lords did not belong.

2. Select "Seek Conquest" from the menu. The two columns show the size of your Home Army and Campaign Army. If you have any vassals, their numbers appear in the Campaign Army column. Use this menu to assign additional forces to the campaign.

3. Of your three tactical choices in combat, "Ferocious Attack" is the greatest gamble. It gives you a better chance of victory against stronger opponents, but it also means far greater casualties among your ranks.

Embarking on an important campaign may bring Locksley's promise to mind. He pledged his aid three times in your quest to restore the Kingdom to Saxon rule. If you wish to seek his help in a campaign, go to Sherwood before marching on any territories. The men of Sherwood will join your ranks and your army will be formidable, indeed.

Trust and confidence between a king and his subjects were things greatly to be desired. King John had neither. Of all the rulers of England, John perhaps best deserved the humbling he received at Runnymede, where the English barons forced him to sign Magna Carta on June 15, 1215. While they held London during their revolt against King John, the barons needed a means of keeping the forces opposed to John under arms while they waited for help to arrive from France. It wasn't long before someone came up with the idea of holding a tournament.

Not only would a tournament keep the barons' men ready for the coming war with John, but it could also figure in a secret message they were sending to their French conspirators. In the carefully-worded letter, the barons urged their friends to attend a tournament near London and bring enough horses and arms to insure "honour" on the field, promising that the knight who carried the day would have the "bear" which a certain lady was sending to the tournament. The plan worked, and in June, the barons had their "bear."

Knights often journeyed to tournaments in hopes of gaining a settlement in land from a fallen opponent. The joust can be used as a means of expanding your domain, but if you fail to choose your opponents with care, they may strip you of your most prized holdings.

The tournament is accompanied by a much fanfare, and novice knights can be carried away by the heady atmosphere of this courtly event. Be not deceived by the pageantry preceding the joust -- the vital instant before the combatants collide is the briefest of moments. You have no more than a handful of precious seconds to steady your lance. All of your concentration and skill must come together for that moment. In a joust there is no second chance.

Know also that knights with highly-refined skills in the tournament are extremely difficult to unseat. Your aim must be precise - anything but a direct blow at the centre of the shield may fail to knock a practised opponent from his saddle.

1. Your character's skill in the joust can vary -- you will find it easier to win jousting matches if your character has a higher rating. Be wary of risking valuable land with a character who is unskilled in the joust.

2. The other Saxon lords are, in principle, your allies. This does not mean, however, that they will treat you as a friend on the jousting field.

3. The laws of chivalry forbid a knight from striking anything but the shield or helmet of his opponent. Aim your lance at a horse, and the tournament will be your last.

Jousting was one of the earliest knightly sports. Dangerous for the participants and popular with spectators, it usually marked the beginning or end of a tournament. Brutal incidents are common throughout the 700- year history of tournaments -- mock battles could turn into the real thing when tempers flared. The year 1240 saw a particularly violent tournament near Cologne in which sixty knights and squires perished.

Abhorred by the church and banned by responsible monarchs like Henry II, the tournament nevertheless was an enjoyable pastime for nobility and became the accepted training ground for war. On more than one occasion, jousting became an integral part of a war. His coffers depleted by a war with France, Richard I held tournaments to raise money. At the height of the hundred Years War, Edward III invited the enemy to tournaments, issuing guarantees of safe conduct to any Frenchmen who would meet his knights in courtly combat.

Most lords are proficient in the science of swordplay and they train their castle guards very well. If you elect to raid an enemy castle, be prepared for a fight. Slipping over a castle wall without being detected is easy enough in the dead of night, but the heart of a castle -- the keep -- is more difficult to penetrate. When the alarm is raised and guards appear, act quickly to force your way inside the keep. Time is of the essence, so waste not a moment.

The courtyard of the enemy's castle is not the best place to learn the secrets of swordsmanship. Lessons learned here are learned the hard way. Keep two things in mind and you should live long enough to reap the benefits of experience: first, the moment to thrust is when your opponent is off balance, his sword in motion away from yours; second, you must always keep moving. Keep your opponent off balance and he'll be unable to anticipate your blows.

And one last piece of friendly advice. It is best not to allow the eye to wander from the flashing blade of your opponent's sword -- not even for a moment. No matter what catches your attention in the moonlit sky.

1. It is possible to strike once with your sword, then strike again so quickly that your opponent may find it impossible to parry your blow. Learn this trick, and you can use it to great advantage.

2. Try "mixing it up" by jiggling your character back and forth -- this technique can enhance your ability to keep an opponent off guard.

3. Like all movie heroes, you can keep fighting after you've been wounded. But even heroes run out of steam sooner or later, so remember that you can always get out the same way you came in....

Just as you did before campaigning, you may seek help in Sherwood Forest on your way to a night raid. When asked to select a castle for your destination, first journey to the forest. Friends abide there, and they are renowned for their prowess with a well-forged blade.

Was there a real Robin Hood? People have been telling stories and singing songs about the outlaw of Sherwood Forest since the 13th century. Scholars have written books trying to pin him down as one historical figure or another. But like all good legends, Robin refuses to be pinned down.

Cambridge history professor J.C. Holt theorises that if there was a real Robin, he was probably Robert Hood, a Yorkshire outlaw mentioned in court records of 1225. Other historians have tied Robin to a "Robyn Hod" named in pipe rolls from the reign of Edward II. Still other accounts would have us believe that he was Robert Fitz-Ooth, the rightful Earl of Huntingdon who became an outlaw when unjustly deprived of his title.

More than likely, the truth is that all of these men -- and others -- contributed to the legend as we know it today. Scholars like Holt point out that the original stories about Robin lacked many of the trappings we associate with the legend. In the first ballads he was indeed an outlaw, he did live in Sherwood and he wore a suit of Lincoln green. But as the stories were handed down, the tellers magnified the tale by adding new characters and the deeds of other men.

History records that a man named Friar Tuck led a band of outlaws in the forests of Sussex and Surrey between 1417 and 1429. Storytellers couldn't pass up the opportunity to include a stout friar in their tales about Robin. Writers invented much of Robin's story, giving him a birthplace (Locksley), a girlfriend (Maid Marian) and a worthy foe (the Sheriff of Nottingham). Perhaps in the 21st century, Robin will get married and have kids. Who knows? It really doesn't matter if we can still enjoy the story of our most cherished hero - the noble outlaw of Sherwood Forest.

DEFENDER OF THE CROWN is a tribute to those magnificent Hollywood costume adventures that transport audiences to a world of dashing heroes, and damsels in distress, where kingdoms fall at the drop of a drawbridge.

Perhaps no character sums up this spirit of adventure than Robin Hood.

Although five motion pictures about the outlaw of Sherwood Forest were made before 1920, the definitive Robin Hood for the silent era was the 1922 production of "Robin Hood", starring Douglas Fairbanks. His athletic prowess, daredevil stunts and light hearted approach to adventure made Fairbanks an audience favourite. Prior to "Robin Hood", he had starred in "The Three Musketeers" and "The Mark of Zorro".

"Robin Hood" is one of the most lavish productions of all time, costing over $1,400,000, a staggering sum for those days. Its massive, elaborate sets included a full scale medieval castle! The most memorable sequence features Robin breaking into Nottingham castle, dashing along the battlements fighting off literally hundreds of armed men. Trapped in the minstrels gallery, beset on both sides, he dives over the balcony and slides down a huge curtain to freedom.

Fairbanks surrounded himself with an excellent cast of players, including Alan Hale as the burly Little John in the first of his three film appearances as Robin Hood's lieutenant.

1938 saw what is still hailed as the definitive Robin Hood film, Warner Brothers' "The Adventures of Robin Hood", starring swashbuckler supreme, Errol Flynn. The studio pulled out all the stops and shot the film in the 3-colour-negative Technicolor process.

The casting was nothing short of inspired. Dashing, daring, and courageous, Flynn would always be identified with the role..and justifiably so. As Maid Marian, Olivia De Havilland was a perfect counterpart to Flynn. So much so that Warners subsequently teamed them up in several other features. Villainy was placed into the matchless hands of cinematic rotters Basil Rathbone (Sir Guy of Gisbourne) and Claude Raines (Prince John). Melville Cooper played the Sheriff of Nottingham as a comic figure.

Alan Hale made his second appearance as Little John, the addition of sound allowing his roaring voice and bellowing laughter to add new dimension to his character.

Rotund, gravel-voiced Eugene Pallette played Friar Tuck and Patrick Knowles was Will Scarlett.

The film featured Robin storming into a Norman castle to defy Prince John; the bank of outlaws attacking a gold train; the archery tournament; the daring rescue of Robin from the gallows; and the final storming of Nottingham castle by Robin's men and the newly returned King Richard the Lionheart.

"The Adventures of Robin Hood" is probably the finest costume adventure that Hollywood has ever produced.

Alan Hale made his final appearance as Little John in "Rogues of Sherwood Forest" (1950), probably the best of the 'Son of Robin Hood' films. As is true of the others, the actor portraying Robin could make or break the film. Fortunately, John Derek's (25 years before Bo) hero of Sherwood was a worthy champion of the poor and oppressed and was more than capable in the derring-do department. Reportedly, he did most of his own stunts.

1952 saw two Robin Hood related films hit the screen. The first was Walt Disney's "The Story of Robin Hood". Shot entirely in England, Disney's live-action feature starred Richard Todd as Robin, Joan Rice as Maid Marian and Peter Finch as the Sheriff of Nottingham.

The second was MGM's mega-production of Sir Walter Scott's classic novel, Ivanhoe. Robert Taylor accepted the part of Sir Wilfred of Ivanhoe after Errol Flynn and Laurence Olivier turned it down. He acquitted himself nobly in one of the most colourful and complex costume dramas every filmed.

Midway through the film, Robin Hood aids Ivanhoe by leading his men in the exiting siege of the Norman castle of Torquilstone. The Saxon outlaws swarm out of the forest and launch themselves against the sheer castle walls, darkening the sky with a rain of arrows.

The tremendous box-office success of "Ivanhoe" set the pattern for the studio's subsequent 'knights of old' swashbucklers, "Knights of the Roundtable" (1955) and "The Adventures of Quentin Durward" (1955).

In 1955 Robin received his first television exposure in the series "The Adventures of Robin Hood". From 1955 through 1958, the denizens of Sherwood battled the oppression of Prince John and company for 165 half hour episodes. Richard Greene's Robin Hood was more mature than Flynn's, cheerful and resourceful, rather than dashing and athletic. He became the Robin Hood for an entire generation of Baby Boomers.

1960 saw Greene reprise his Robin Hood for the big screen in Hammer Film's "Sword of Sherwood Forest".

Disney released a new animated version of "Robin Hood" in 1973. It featured animals as the characters. Robin was a fox; Prince John a thumb- sucking Lion; and Little John a bear; etc.

In 1976 Richard Lester directed a much different type of Robin Hood film. "Robin and Marian" explored the legend during the disillusioned, declining years of Robin and the other characters.

Interest in Robin Hood is apparently undying and universal. The Showtime Cable Network began broadcasting a new, English produced television series in 1984. And, although they have not been exported, a number of Japanese films have been produced, featuring the Rogue of Sherwood.

The appeal of Robin Hood will remain a timeless joy to those who love adventure, whether revisiting an "old friend" or entering the magic Greenwood of Sherwood Forest for the first time.

It is these last lucky ones who are to be envied.

MEDIEVAL BRITAIN was a crucible of heroes. Our most famous legends originated in "merrie olde England," during that romantic time of chivalrous knights, when all the women must have looked like Elizabeth Taylor. That single period in history gave us King Arthur, William the Conqueror, Richard the Lionhearted, the fictitious knight Ivanhoe and, of course, Robin Hood.

The story of the noble outlaw who robs from the rich and gives to the poor is the best known legend in the English-speaking world. A survey conducted during the hero-starved 1970's showed that Robin is the second most famous figure of fact or fiction. What name was above Robin's at the top of the list? Jesus of Nazareth.

So in February 1986, on the soggy Pacific Northwest morning when Bob Jacob's voice on the telephone said, "Let's do a compute game with knights and castles and jousting and damsels in distress, "I knew instinctively what he had in mind. This would be a tale of heroes.

To bring those heroes to life, we took great care in recreating 12th century England. History buffs will note that none of the knights or horses wears armour, and that the main character is lightly protected by chain mail. Knights began wearing pieces of plate armour to protect parts of the body around 1300 and full suits of armour didn't become common until the latter part of the century.

The castles are authentic, based upon scrutiny of the books listed herein as well as first-hand experience. As I marvel at Jim Sachs' magnificent Norman castle looming out of my computer screen, I compare it to the snapshot I took of the castle that served as the model for my original sketches of the scene. And somehow, I find reality lacking.

None of our drawings or imaginings would have amounted to much without the skills of an inventive programmer. When R.J. Mical joined the project, he brought more than his consummate technical skills, he brought ideas and solutions. He literally willed the Amiga version into existence.