Once upon a time, there was a grey wolf sent down from heaven. He and
his empress, a white doe, came across a great lake. This is an ancient
legend passed down from generation among the Mongols, the people who
ruled most of the Eurasian Continent in the middle of the 12th century.

The legend describes how Genghis Khan, although abandoned and impoverish
in childhood, succeeded in building the greatest Empire that has ever existed.

With GENGHIS KHAN, the latest in a trilogy of historical simulations,
Infogrames gives you the chance to make legend reality. Take the part of
King Richard, the Lion-Hearted, Emperor Alexious III, Shogun Minamoto
Yoritomo, or even that of the Great Khan himself, Genghis Khan. Lead
your armies across the vast Eurasian of the Middle East. Build your
empire with wisdom and tenacity, but beware of others whose ambition may
be greater than yours. Conquer, or be conquered.

Now, KOEI and INFOGRAMES are proud to present GENGHIS KHAN. We believe
the game's unique emphasis on human interaction (personal commands,
selection or removal of governors and successors, Rendezvous command to
create an heir and many more), will provide the player many hours of
enjoyment, challenge and learning.


You achieve your goal in MONGOL CONQUEST in the role of Genghis Khan; in
WORLD CONQUEST as any one of the four kings who ruled the world at that time.

You will be offered a choice of two scenarios: MONGOL CONQUEST and WORLD

Start: Spring 1175
Setup: The game puts you in the role of Temujin, the Mongol chief who in
real life was to become Genghis Khan.
Winning the Game: The objective of the game is the unification of Mongolia.

Note: Only one person may play in Mongol Conquest.

In Mongol Conquest, when you have succeeded in unifying the 14 tribes,
the game will automatically change to World Conquest after showing the
end display of the Mongolian Unification. You can also select World
Conquest in Preliminaries for single play.

* The Mongol chief (Temujin) in Mongol Conquest will change to Genghis
Khan of the Mongol Empire in World Conquest.

Start: Spring 1206
Setup: You may select any of the four countries: the Mongol Empire
(Genghis Khan),England (Richard I),the Byzantine Empire (Alexious III)
or Japan (Mimamoto Yoritomo). Twenty-seven countries in all are
Winning the Game: The objective of the game is the unification of the
Eurasian Continent.

Note: One to four may play.

There are two displays, main and hex. The Main display provides
information relevant to domestic policy. While battle is carried out on
the HEX display. Both of these have a different set of keyboard commands.

This basic display shows data about your country, and a map on which each
country is distinctively coloured. Data on domestic policy will be
displayed on the screen.

Your turn comes four times a year: in spring, summer, fall and winter.
In your base, you are allowed to issue three commands per turn.
You are not allowed to issue a command to a vassal state, which is ruled
by a Governor under you. In an area under direct control you can issue one
command per turn.

When you attack another country or are attacked, war will begin. When your
Leader attacks another country, or when your base or an area under your
direct control is attacked, the screen will change to the battle display.
During other battles, the display will only change from main to battle
display if you set the battle field ON, with command 15. When the war is
over, the screen will return to the main display.

A day is considered to have passed after both sides issued one set of orders.
During wars that take place in your base, or in an area under your direct
control, you may issue one command to each of your units per turn.
During wars taking place in your vassal states, you must simply observe
the fighting and can issue no commands. You acquire a country when you
attack and conquer it. You must select a method of ruling all the
countries you acquire (except the base, which belongs to your Leader).
If you select 'vassal state' these areas will be ruled by Governors.
If you select to rule under 'direct control', you are limited to only one
command per turn; however, you rule the country directly.

Three types of countries are set in GENGHIS KHAN:

A country that belongs to a leader.
It is directly ruled by a leader. Three commands may be issued per season.

A country ruled by a Governor.
A leader can send government policy but cannot actually rule this country.
Send Policy decisions are made by the computer.

A country ruled by a leader.
Some orders (e.g. Rendezvous, Diplomacy) may not be given because the
leader is not residing in the state.
Only one command may be issued per season.

The objective of the game is the unification of the world. If your
leader dies before he has accomplished this goal, a successor can be
selected from among his children, but only if his base has not been
destroyed by an enemy. This selection of a successor, however, is only
allowed in World Conquest. A successor can only be selected when the
following conditions are met:
a. It must be the game of World Conquest.
b. The base must not have been invaded and occupied by an enemy.
c. Your king must have a son more than 10 years old (a Candidate for
Governor cannot become a successor).

Note: In the spring of 1206, Mimamoto Yoritomo starts at 59 years old, an
advanced age. You should not make either Yoriie or Sanetomo a candidate
for Governor, because it is possible Yoritomo may die soon, since he is
at the end of his life span.



Amiga 500, 1000, 2000 or 2500
1 Mega RAM, 1 disk drive




Booting from the Game Disk:
-Boot your Amiga from GENGHIS KHAN disk A.
-Double click on the Genghis_A icon.
-Double click on the Genghis-Khan icon.

Booting from the Workbench screen:
-Place GENGHIS KHAN Disk A in a disk drive.
-Double click on the Genghis _A icon.
-Double click on the Genghis-Khan icon.


You will need 1.7 megabytes of free space on your hard drive to install

-Create a drawer on your hard drive and name it Genghis.
-Insert Disk A in a disk drive.
-Double click on the Genghis_A icon.
-Drag copy each icon (Data A and Genghis Khan) into the Genghis drawer.
-When finished, remove Disk A and insert Disk B in a disk drive.
-Double click on the Genghis_B icon.
-Drag copy Data B into the Genghis drawer.
-When finished, remove all Genghis disks from disk drives, then run the
game off the hard drive by double clicking on the Genghis-Khan icon.


The AMIGA version of GENGHIS KHAN has been designed with complete mouse
support. Except ot Keys, there is absolutely no occasion to use the
keyboard. Therefore, all references to keyboard operation in the manual
should be ignored. While almost all of the gadgets used in this version
are self-explanitory, the following explanations are included to help you
get started.

Remember these two points:
The SELECT button is the LEFT mouse Button. You can also use this button
to move the blue panels which prompt you to confirm (Yes or No) or
display information and statistics. To do this, place the cursor on top
of the panel, press the left mouse button and hold it down, and drag the
panel where you want to.

The Menu Button is the RIGHT mouse Button.

When you are prompted to select a governor to train, ability to increase,
goods to sell, or other item from the list, simply move the cursor to the
desired item. A highlighted bar will appear over what you point to.
Press the select button when the highlighted bar is over the desired

Certain commands ask the player to select a country. Move the cursor over
the desired country or the country's number and press the select button.

All commands have been put into menus. To execute a command, move your
cursor to the top of the screen, press the menu button and hold it down.
You can search through the menues and sub-menus opening under your cursor
with your mouse button pressed.

NOTE: Some commands have hot keys as well.



1. TAX
Change Tax Rate Economic
Collect Special Tax Economic

Pop. Distribution Economic A - P
Soldier Distribution Military A - D

3. GIVE Economic

Soldiers Military
Governor Candidates Personnel <Governor> A - ;
Self Personnel
Noncombatants Military

of China Economic A - 1
of Islam Economic A - 2
of Uighur Economic A - 3

Transfer Personnel <Reassign>
Change de Governor Personnel <Reassign>
Send Governor Personnel <Reassign>
Control Vassal State Administrative
Select Personnel <Governor>
Remove Personnel <Governor>
Nominate Personnel <Governor>
Marry Personnel <Arrange Marriage>
Recruit Military

7. RENDEZVOUS Personnel A - Z

8. VIEW Administrative A - V

9. MOVE Administrative

10. SEND POLICY Administrative A - L

11. DIPLOMACY Administrative

12. ESPIONAGE Military

13. WAR Military <Go to War> A - W

14. PASS Administrative

Save Game File A - S
Wait Delay Other
Music Other
Sound Effects Other
Animation Other
Battlefield Other
End File <Quit Game> A - Q
Quit Player File
Restart Game File A - R
Screen to Back Other
Current Country Administrative
(Restores the data
of the country you
currently are in.)


Entire Unit Move A - M
Divide & Move Move A - D

Normal Attack A - N
Long Range Attack A - L
1-on-1 Combat Attack A - O
Ambush Attack A - A

3. STANDBY General

Demand Surrender General A - X
Request Reinforcement General <Reinforce> A - R
Plunder Attack A - A
Hunt General <Hunt> A - H

5. WITHDRAWAL General A - W

Unit Status Intelligence A - U
Commander Status Intelligence A - C
Military Intelligence Intelligence A - I

To deploy units, move the cursor to a numbered hex and press select to
place a unit there. Remember, you can only deploy your troops on
numbered hexes. Don't try to click elsewhere. It won't work.

1) Click on the unit you wish to move with the select button.
2) Drag out desired path of movement. (If you drag a wrong path, go
backwards over the wrong path, then drag out the correct path while
still pressing the select button.
3) Release select button.
(You can also use the command <Entire Unit> from the MOVE menu, and
follow steps 1, 2, and 3 above.)

1) Select type of attack from the ATTACK menu.
2) Point to the unit you wish to attack and press select. (This also
applies to long-range archery attacks.)
TIP: When you want to move a unit or decide to attack an enemy, we
recommend you use the Hot-Keys, in order to gain time.


In the AMIGA version of Genghis Khan, all parameters that define each
character's abilities will be set automatically. If you are not
satisfied with the values the computer has selected, have it reset the
values by answering 'No' to the question, 'Is this OK?' Repeat this as
many times as you like until you are satisfied with the values.

ZERO-PLAY MODE To watch the computer play itself, select the 'World Conquest'
scenario and choose 0 players. The computer will continue to play until the
year 1605 A.D. To exit from zero-play mode, move the cursor to the very top
of the screen when the main map is shown and press the select button. If
a player wants to quit, but you do not want to end the game, choose <Quit
Player> under the FILE menu and the computer will take over for the
retiring player. When no human players remain, the game will end.

The AMIGA version of GENGHIS KHAN is fully MULTI-TASKING. You can access
the <Screen to Back> function by selecting it under the OTHER menu.

We recommend you to format an AMIGA floppy disk before playing. In order
to be able to save a game to disk.

Insert the AMIGA-DOS disk in your disk drive and switch on the computer.
Type FORMAT DRIVE DF2: (or DF0 or DF1) NAME 'diskname'. The name of the
floppy disk must not exceed 8 characters. For example, type GENGHIS.
The program will ask you to insert the disk to be formatted. Once this
operation achieved, switch off your computer and load GENGHIS KHAN.

In the FILE menu, place the cursor on the SAVE option, then release the
select button. The SAVE window appears.
First, insert the formatted disk in one of your floppy drives. In the
window on the right of the screen, click on the corresponding drive name,
that is DF0:, DF1:, or DF2:. Then a small white square will appear in
the FILE line to prompt you to type in your file name. Type in the name
or just the number of the file that you want. To confirm, click on the
item OK! The game will then be saved to disk. To return to play, you
must either click on the item FORGET IT! or on the red dot in the upper
left of the SAVE screen.

NOTE: To save to your hard disk, just select in the window on the right,
the name of your hard drive.

The keys you use in the game GENGHIS KHAN are basically the number keys 0
to 9, and Y,N and RETURN. Hit RETURN after giving an order by entering
the appropriate numbers.

Questions requiring a yes/no answer can be answered on the main keyboard
by using the Y key for yes, or the N key for no, or by using the key
pad's 0 key for yes and Carriage Return key for no. All operation can
thus be made by using only the key pad. Most orders can be cancelled by
hitting RETURN once. For keyboard operation using other keys, please
follow the displayed message.

Note: The opening sequence will repeat itself until the Space Bar is
pressed, after pressing the Space Bar the first options screen will be


The Mongol Conquest game puts you in the role of Temujin, a Mongol chief.
When Temujin dies, having reached the end of his life or having been
killed by an enemy during a war, the game is over.

In World Conquest, even if your king dies a natural death or is killed,
you can continue the game by selecting a successor. If your base has
been invaded, or if you have no male children more than 10 years old, you
cannot select a successor, and the game is over.

If you wish to save a game so you can come back to it later, enter
command 15., and select option SAVE to save the data. After saving the
data, select option END to end the game. If you wish to end the game
without saving it, enter command 15., here and select END.


At the opening menu, the player will be asked to select one of two
options: 1: Start Game, 2: Prepare Save Disk.
First time players should select option 2 and create a save disk for
future games. If a save disk has already been made, players will want to
select option 1 and go directly to the Scenario selection.

Proceed to the Scenario selection (see C.) procedure described below.

You will be offered a choice of two scenarios, Mongol Conquest or World
Conquest. You may also select Load data and continue a previously-saved
game. A saved game will commence from the point at which it was last

If you select Mongol Conquest, you will proceed to I. Setting Abilities.

If you select World Conquest, follow the message displayed on the screen.

When you select 'Load Data', change A disk to D disk, and hit RETURN.
When asked, 'Which saved game will you load? (1-10)', enter the file
number you wish to load and hit RETURN.

Then change disks again, following the displayed message, hit RETURN, and
the game will begin. A saved game will commence from the point at which
it was stopped.

* If you erroneously enter 'Load Data', you may return to the Select
Scenario stage by hitting ESC.

The number of players can be selected only on the World Conquest game.
One to four may play in World Conquest. Enter the desired number of

Characters can only by chosen in the World Conquest game.
Each player will be asked which country he/she would like to rule. When
you select a country, you take control of that country's king.

Enter the appropriate number. You may select your country and ruler from
the following four countries/rulers:

1. The Mongol Empire (Genghis Khan)
2. England (Richard I)
3. The Byzantine Empire (Alexious III)
4. Japan (Minamoto Yoritomo)

When more than one person is playing, each player chooses his/her own
country in turn.

Setting Abilities determines the parameters that define each character's
abilities. Each selection will be a significant factor in the course of
the game, so all choices should be made carefully.

When you are first asked 'Set parameters automatically? (Y/N)' select 'Y'
or '0' for Yes, and 'N' or hit RETURN for No. If you select Yes, the
parameters for the five characters are displayed at once. If you are
satisfied with these parameters, answer 'Yes' to the question, 'Is this
OK? (Y/N)'. You may repeat this as many times as you like until you are
satisfied with the value of each parameter.

If you wish to select the parameters manually, select 'No' and set the
parameters for each character. Set the numerical value of all the
parameters, you will be asked 'Is this OK? (Y/N)'. Please answer 'Yes'
or 'No'. You may select the parameters as many times as you like.

If you select 'Yes', the message 'Distribute 100 points among the
parameters' will be displayed on the screen. When you hit the SPACE BAR,
points will be added to the parameter in the violet coloured space on the
screen. Make sure not to continue hitting the SPACE BAR. If you do,
points will continue being added. Hit RETURN when you are ready to go to
the next parameter. When you have distributed all 100 points, the
message 'Is this OK? (Y/N)' will be displayed. Answer with 'Yes' or
'No'. If you select 'Yes', you will go to the step for setting the
abilities of the next character. If 'No', you will go back to the step
for setting the numerical values of each parameter. After you repeat
this operation five times, and complete the dividing of 100 points among
the parameters of the five characters, the message 'All parameters OK?
(Y/N)' will be displayed. Please answer 'Yes' or 'No'. If 'Yes' is
selected, you will proceed to J. Selecting Skill Level. If 'No', you
will return to the stage of setting the parameters of your Leader.

When more than one person is playing, the above operations for setting
abilities should be repeated as many times as there are players.

There are six parameters which you can set when setting abilities. Each
parameter has the following meaning:

The basic ability for a leader. It is needed for almost all the commands
concerning domestic policy and diplomacy.

Commands needing leadership ability: Tax, Give, Train, Personnel, Move,
Send, Policy, Espionage, War.

The ability to determine things.

Commands needing judgement ability: Merchant, Personnel, View, Move,
Send, Policy, and War.

This ability determines your capacity to plan ahead. For example, when a
country is established or war takes place.

Commands needing Planning ability: Give, Distribute, Personnel,
Rendezvous, Move, Espionage, War.

The ability to convince or sway other people. It is indispensable in
attempting diplomatic negotiations.

Commands needing Persuasive ability: Tax, Train, Rendezvous, Move, Send,
Policy, Diplomacy, War.

The ability to undertake strenuous activities.

Commands needing Physical ability: Rendezvous, Move, Diplomacy, and

The Leader's own skill in waging war. The higher this value is, the more
likely the Leader is to succeed in diplomatic relations and war.

Commands needing Military ability: Rendezvous, Diplomacy, Espionage, and

As detailed in section 8. MAIN DISPLAY COMMANDS, the value of each of
these parameters will be lowered every time a command is issued. If your
Leader does not have the ability level to issue a command, that command
cannot be executed.

These values are used not only for the decision whether a command can be
issued or not, but also for every kind of judgement. For example, the
ability to judge if a war will be won or lost, or if you will succeed or
fail in a diplomatic negotiation requires a certain level of ability.
The higher the value, the greater the likelihood of success. You should
set these values at least at a minimum of 50 points. The maximum value
possible is 999 points.

This number will determine the computer's strength, with one being the
weakest and five the strongest. Level 1 is recommended for players not
yet accustomed to the game.

Finally, you will be asked 'Is everything all right? (Y/N)'. If you
select 'No', you will return to Selecting Scenario. Therefore please be
careful when answering this question.


a. The name of the country which rules the area with the blinking number
on the map is displayed here. For example, if the Mongol Empire is
ruling Japan, not 'Japan' but 'The Mongol Empire' will be displayed in
the data on Japan. It is not therefore necessarily the area name.

b. Current year and season

c. The name and face of the ruler of the area marked by the blinking
number are displayed here. When 'base' is displayed under his name, this
country is a base of a. and c. its leader. When 'area under direct
control' is displayed, this country is an area under direct control of
a., and c. is not the country. When only the name of the ruler is
displayed, the country is a vassal state of a., and c. is a ruler sent as
Governor to rule this country.

d. Conditions of the area marked by the blinking number are displayed

e. The number of remaining commands for the current player's shown here.

f. Current market prices are displayed here. Market prices will change
every season, and have an influence on dealing with the merchants. Costs
are high when market prices are high, and low when market prices are low.

Main display: The conditions of your ruling country are displayed at d.
You should issue a command after observing every parameter which shows
the condition of your country.

Interpreting these parameters will help guide your next action.

The maximum value for parameters is 999.

Civil obedience in the country is represented by the Morale of the
citizens. When the Morale value is low, uprisings are more likely to
take place than when its high. You should therefore pay close attention
to this value. There may be people who don't pay their taxes during the
tax collection season in the spring, when the morale is low.
This value is influenced by the taxation rate. When the taxation rate is
high, the level of Morale is likely to decrease.
The level of Morale also decreases when special taxes are collected or
soldiers are recruited. This value will be increased when gold,
provisions, or specialty items are distributed among the citizens.

Morale levels will automatically decrease every spring.

This value is the amount of gold available for immediate use. Gold is
used for View, Espionage, Rendezvous, Give and Merchant. Some commands
may not be given if the country's gold level falls below a certain
amount. Special attention should be paid to this value.

The gold depends on the tax rate and the economic power of the country.
Every spring this value will increase through the collection of taxes,
but at the same time will decrease due to payments to the army. If there
are more soldiers than can be afforded, the size of the army will
automatically be reduced. Gold may also be obtained by collecting
special taxes, or by selling provisions and specialty products.

This value reflects the amount of provisions available for immediate use.
Provisions must be distributed to the citizens, and used to feed the army
during wars. If provisions run out during a war you automatically lose.
Special attention should be paid to this value. Provisions may also be
sold to, or bought from, the merchants.

Provisions are fed to half the population each spring, and gathered each
fall. The amount of provisions brought in is the sum of the population
assigned to food production in that year.
Provisions are reduced, however, when plundered by an enemy during a war.
Also, if provisions far exceed the population, there is always the danger
that food may be stolen if the Morale level falls.

This value represents the number of men that serve in the military.
Soldiers are necessary for both expansion and protection so, generally
speaking, the more the better. However, since soldiers must be paid each
spring, this value will be decreased when there is a shortage of gold.
The number of soldiers may be increased with command 6. Personnel which
recruits noncombatants. However, the level of Morale, Offensive
Strength, and Training will decrease.
You may also have set the type and percentage of the different units by
means of distribution of soldiers.

* The values of Provisions and Soldiers above are displayed in multiples
of ten on the battle field.

This value represents all specialty items that can be produced in the
country. Specialty items may also be sold to the merchants. Each fall,
the sum of the population assigned to Specialty Production for that year
is totalled. Using command 8. View/Inventory, you can see the amount of
specialty items available for immediate use.

This value represents the number of men that serve in town construction.
The higher the value, the more the Economic Power levels is raised each
season. Economic Power (gold) is necessary to issue commands, and is
also an important indication of the status of the country. Close
attention should be paid to this value.

This value represents the number of men that serve in castle
construction. The higher the value, the greater the defensive strength
level of the castle is raised each season.

This value represents the number of men that serve in food production.
Each fall, the sum of the population that serves in food production for
that year is totalled. A large amount of food is necessary to feed the
army during war. During peace time, too, food is needed for various

This value represents the number of men that serve in specialty
production. Like food producers, the sum of the population that serve in
specialty production during that year is totalled.

* You may assign workers to Town & Castle construction, and Food &
Specialty production, with command 2. Distribute/Population Distribution.

This value represents the wealth of the country. It has a great deal of
influence on the source of revenue and the amount of tax collected. The
higher the value, the greater the amount of collected tax. Economic
power will be raised by increasing the number of town builders. The
value will decrease each season.

The defensive strength of the castles in the country. This value has an
effect on the battle screen. The higher the value, the stronger the
defensive force. When the value falls to less than 20, the defensive
strength of the battlefield in the castle is less than that of the
battlefield in the town. Defensive strength values will decrease when
there is an act of aggression by an enemy. The value will decrease every

Offensive Strength is the level of the offensive strength of the
population. A higher Offensive Strength means more combat-effective
army. Purchase weapons from three merchants if you wish to raise the
offensive strength value. You may buy six kinds of weapons: daggers,
swords, axes, lances, halberds and explosives.

When you recruit soldiers, the offensive strength value will decrease
according to the number of soldiers recruited. This value will decrease
every winter.

When the population is drilled its training value increases. As for the
offensive strength value, a higher value means more combat-effective

Command 4. Train, will increase this value, but Recruiting will decrease
it. This value decreases every summer.

* In the game of GENGHIS KHAN there are some parameters not described

Each country has noncombatants (0-999), outside of the regular
population. This value shows what percentage of noncombatants can be
mobilized as soldiers.

This value is displayed only when the taxation rate is changed.
Country population soldiers* (population that stands by in case of war)
town builders* (population that serves in castle construction) food
producers* (population that serves in food production) specialized labour
force* (population that serves in special item production) noncombatants
(old people and children with no occupation).
You can change the number of people marked with * by using command 2.
Distribute/Population Distribution (7.2.1.).

* You may also recruit new soldiers from other countries by using command
5. Merchants/Recruit Soldiers (7.5.3.). You may assign these new
soldiers to jobs other than soldier (town builders, castle builders, food
producers and specialized labour) by using command 2.
Distribute/Population Distribution (7.2.1.). The total population of the
country will increase by recruiting new soldiers.

* You may mobilize noncombatants as soldiers according to the proportion
available for mobilization, by using command 6. Personnel/Recruit (7.F.).

In the game GENGHIS KHAN players may issue commands only in their base,
and in areas under direct control. In your base you may issue three
commands when it is your turn, but only one command in an area under
direct control. There are also commands which you may not give in an
area under direct control.

The value needed to issue one command will be deducted from Self ability.
You cannot issue unless you have a high enough ability level to give that

1 Tax Change taxation rate and collect special tax

2 Distribute Assign population to jobs using Population
Distribution, and assign soldiers to units Soldier's

3 Give Give property to citizens

4 Train Train soldiers for more combat effective army

5 Merchant Summon merchants for transactions

6 Personnel Issue commands pertaining to Governors, Governor
Candidates and children

*7 Rendezvous Increases possibility of a child

8 View Obtain information about countries and leaders

*9 Move Move ruler, population or property

*10 Send Policy Issue government policy to vassal state

*11 Diplomacy Make diplomatic negotiations with other countries

12 Espionage Intelligence, Active intervention and Domestic

*13 War Attack another country

14 Pass Waive one turn

15 Other Game options

Simply hitting RETURN on the main display will produce the option menu;
hitting '0', the conditions of your country.

Some commands, such as Personnel, View, Send, Policy, Diplomacy and
Espionage require that you select from those countries whose numbers are
displayed in yellow. Other countries cannot be chosen.

Commands marked with * may not be given in an area under direct control.

This command enables you to change the level of tax collected every
spring. You may set this level to any rate between 1 and 100 per cent
(but not zero percent). The taxation rate is not always set as the
players wish, and raising taxation rate will not necessarily increase the
amount of tax collected.
The Morale of the citizens will change according to changes in the tax

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Persuasive ability 5.

When the country has no resources, you may collect a special tax once a
year during the fall harvest season. The amount of special tax which can
be collected is displayed in parenthesis.
If you choose to collect a special tax, however, the values for Morale
and Economic Power will decrease along with the number of citizens.
Therefore, you must be careful when imposing a special tax.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 10, Persuasive ability 10.

This command allows you to assign citizens to different occupations.
There are five occupations: soldiers, town builders, castle builders,
food producers and specialized labour. A chart showing the Population
Distribution will be displayed. Select the number of the occupation
which you wish to change and enter this number. However, if you assign
too many men as soldiers, the Morale level will decrease.

This command allows you to change the percentage of soldiers of each
unit. There are 10 units: the command unit, and the first to ninth
units. The command unit number is 0. When a chart showing Soldiers
Distribution is displayed, select the number for the unit whose
percentage you wish to change. Enter the new percentage. Then select
the type of unit (1: Cavalry 2: Infantry 3: Archers). After you complete
the Soldiers Distribution, hit RETURN.

For the characteristics of each unit, please refer to section 11.

Minimum ability levels necessary to change Population and Soldiers
Distribution: Leadership ability 5, Planning ability 5.

Distributing gold, provisions or specialty items (but only the specialty
items produced in that country) to the citizens will increase their
Morale Level. The increase in Morale will vary with the number of
citizens and the amount of goods distributed. For example, when 10 units
of gold are distributed among 10 people, the Morale value will increase
10 times the amount as when 10 units of gold are distributed among 100
people. Enter the numerical value you wish to distribute.

Necessary ability: Planning ability 5.

This command will increase the Training level of soldiers. You may
change the number of soldiers using command 2. Distribute Population
Distribution (7.2.1.). It is necessary to train the entire population in
order to increase the training value of soldiers. Therefore, an increase
in training value is proportional to the total number of people. A
larger training value means a more combat-effective army.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5.

This command will raise the abilities of a Candidate for Governor.
Select a Candidate and one ability that you wish to increase. The
ability you choose will be raised.
Only one ability of one Candidate can be raised per command.

Necessary ability: Persuasive ability 5.

3. SELF*
This command enables you, the Ruler, to raise your own abilities. Select
an ability you wish to improve, and the ability level will be raised.
Ability is necessary to issue all commands and is also used in making
judgements during the game. It is therefore well advised to keep the
ability level at least at a certain level to cover any requirements.
Only one of your own abilities can be raised per command.

Necessary ability: None.

This command allows you to increase the population available for
In GENGHIS KHAN, only healthy men are assigned to occupations, but in
reality there are also old people and children who are not suitable for
military duty. These people are called noncombatants. The proportion
available for mobilization shows what percentage of the noncombatants can
be mobilized. The training of noncombatants will raise this proportion
(more noncombatants can be mobilized). The maximum proportion is 50%.

Necessary ability: Persuasive ability 5.

There are Uighur, Chinese and Islam merchants who do business
transactions independent of each other, each with his own sales routes.
They are not always in every country. If a merchant is in the country
where you are giving commands, you will be able to carry out transactions
for provisions and specialty items, buying weapons and recruiting

All transactions will be conducted at the current market rate. The sell
and buy commands will display the current rates. There are 17 possible

Necessary ability: Judgement ability 5.

You may sell any provisions or specialty items you have. Soldiers cannot
be sold.

2. BUY
You may but provisions or specialty items from the merchants. You may
also buy weapons, but cannot return weapons once they have been
Buying weapons will increase the offensive strength value. The amount of
increase will vary depending on the number and on the population.

As soldiers are recruited, the size of the army will increase. However,
Morale, Offensive Strength and Training values will decrease in
proportion to the number of new recruits.

Commands concerning the Governors (sent to a vassal state) and Candidate
for Governor (standing by in the base).

This command allows you to move Governors in vassal states or areas under
direct control.

This command will change rulers in vassal states with areas under direct
After entering the number of the ruling country where you wish to change
Governors, you may select a new Governor from 1: Candidate for Governor
and 2: Governors abroad (Candidates for Governor are in the base, and
other Governors are in the vassal states). When you select 1: Candidate
for Governor, enter an individual you wish to choose. When you select 2:
Governor abroad, enter the number of the country which that Governor is
currently ruling.

If you enter the country number of an area under direct control, and then
also select a new ruler from 1: Candidate for Governor, then the result
will be same as selecting (2) Send Governor, because no rulers can be

This command allows you to send a Governor to rule an area under direct
control where there is no Governor. Enter the number of the country to
which you wish to send the Governor. Then select the individual you wish
to send from among the Candidates for Governor. With this command, the
country you select will be changed from an area under direct control to a
vassal state ruled by the computer.

This command will put the vassal state ruled by a Governor under direct
control, with your Leader ruling the country directly. Enter the number
of the country you wish to put under direct control.

This command allows you to find an outstanding man among the soldiers to
select as a Candidate for Governor. Since the ability of the soldiers is
low at the beginning, you should increase it by Training.

You may not select more than five Candidates for Governor. Searches for
outstanding men are automatically made by the computer.

This command will demote a Candidate for Governor to a soldier.

This command allows you to make your son a Candidate for Governor. Only
boys more than 10 years old may become Candidate for Governor.
Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Judgement ability 10, Planning
ability 5.

With this command a daughter of your Leader may marry a Candidate for
Governor. Each Candidate for Governor married to a princess is shown
with a marriage flag and becomes a relative of your Leader. A princess
cannot marry a Candidate for Governor already marked with a marriage
flag. Governors and Candidate for Governor with a marriage flag will
never betray you. Since your Leader's sons or brothers are relatives
from the beginning, they will have a marriage flag next to their name
when they become Candidate for Governor.
Only girls more than eight years old can be married.

Necessary ability: Judgement ability 10, Planning ability 10.

In GENGHIS KHAN people who serve in the military or town construction are
called citizens. There are also noncombatants, old people and children
having no occupation. The proportion available for mobilization shows
what percentage of the noncombatants can be recruited at a certain time.
The number of new soldiers will be set according to the number of people
available for mobilization.

However, they are noncombatants, and both their offensive strength and
training values are nearly zero. Offensive Strength, Training and Morale
values will decrease when this command is executed.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Persuasive ability 10.

Rendezvous is the palace where you spend the night with the Empress. If
you issue this command repeatedly, the chances will increase of the
Empress having a baby. Every time you obtain a country by war, you have
the chance to obtain a new empress.

Necessary ability: If the Empress is obedient: Persuasive ability 5,
Physical ability 10. Charm with words: Planning ability 5, Persuasive
ability 5, Physical ability 10. Use aggresive persuasion: Persuasive
ability 10, Physical ability 10, Offensive Strength 5. Use gold to win
her love: Persuasive ability 5, Physical ability 10.

This command enables you to observe the status of other countries.
Unless a spy is out with command 12. Espionage/Intelligence (7.11.1.),
you cannot observe the status of countries except your vassal states, and
the areas under direct control. The status of as many countries as you
wish can be observed with one command.
The status of the countries to which your spy has not been sent cannot be
seen. To observe the status of other countries is considered one order,
but assessing conditions in your country is not.

This command enables you to observe the status of the ruler of each

Necessary ability of both 1 and 2: (but only when observing the status of
others) Judgement ability.

The number of the country (number of the base and any vassal states)
ruled by the leader to whom you are allied, and the terms of the alliance
in units of year, are displayed. The maximum term of the alliance is
five years.

This command gives a chart showing Candidate for Governor residing in
your own country. You may have a maximum of five Candidates for
Governor. A marriage flag shows that a Candidate for Governor is a
relative of your Leader, and that they will never betray him.

This command allows you to know the name, sex and age of each child. You
may have a maximum of five children at any given time.

This command gives a chart showing the inventory of specialty items. You
can see the amount of each specialty item that you have.

Necessary ability: None.

* H. MOVE*
Only when you are ruling more than two countries may you move yourself,
citizens, gold, provisions and specialty items; and only between
countries sharing a common border.

This command allows you to move your Leader from one base to another
country. After moving, the two countries' type will change. The country
to which your Leader has moved automatically becomes the base.

Necessary ability: Physical ability 20.

You may move any one group of people from among the five kinds of
citizens: town builders, castle builders, food producers, specialized
labour and soldiers. After selecting the country from which you wish to
move them, and the one to which you will move them, enter the type of
citizen and the number you wish to move.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 10, Persuasive ability 10.

This command allows you to move gold, provisions or specialty items.
After selecting the country from which and which you wish to move them,
enter the item you wish to move and the amount.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Judgement ability 5, Planning
ability 5.

With this command, you make a government policy statement and issue it to
a Governor in a vassal state. When you turn your vassal state over to a
Governor (i.e. the computer) without making a government policy
statement, the computer will administer your vassal state. A government
policy provides detailed domestic and foreign policy. Select one of the
choices from the messages shown to make government policy.

Send Supplies, written in a government policy, means a transport of gold
in summer, and a transport of provisions in winter, to the appointed
country. Only surplus commodities can be transported, however, since the
country instructed to transport the commodities must raise its national

Since this government policy instructs one Governor about the ruling
policy of the country which he rules, it becomes effective if the ruling
Governor changes.

You should be cautious, even if you have a government policy. If a
stronger country orders to your Governor to become a vassal state, there
is the possibility that he will decide to become the enemy's vassal state
and betray you even if your government policy instructs him to ignore
propositions from others. Governors marked with marriage flags, however,
will never betray you.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Judgement ability 5, Persuasive
ability 5.

This command enables you to attempt negotiations with countries sharing a
common border with you. Whether the negotiations succeed or not depends
on the conditions of both countries the ability of the rulers. In
command Become Vassal State and Give Tribute you may attempt negotiations
with any type of country, but in command Ally with Us you may attempt
negotiations only with the base.

This command orders a weak country to obey you and become your vassal
state. If the country becomes a vassal state, the ruler of that country
will demand a sum of money for the outfitting of his troops. Decide if
you wish to pay it or not. If you don't have enough gold to pay this
cost, the negotiations will break down. It is possible that you will
fail in the negotiations. It is possible that you will be deceived, not
making the country a vassal state but only taking some part of its
property (gold, provisions, specialty items). There is the possibility
that you will be completely ignored. You may not execute this command
with allies.

Necessary ability: Persuasive ability 25, Physical ability 5, Military
ability 10.

This command orders a rival country to give tribute, in gold, provisions,
and/or specialty items. If negotiations succeed, some of the property of
the rival country will be added to your country. You may not execute
this command with allies.

Necessary ability: Persuasive ability 5, Physical ability 5, Military
ability 5.

This command allows you to enter into a non-aggression alliance with
rival countries. The term of validity of the alliance is five years
during which you may not attack any ally and in return will not be
attacked (this includes bases, vassal states, and areas under direct
When you begin negotiations for an non-aggression alliance, you must pay
10 units of gold to your rival country as a tribute. If you do not have
enough gold, it is impossible to execute this command. Repeating this
command with allies means proposing to extend the term of the alliance.

Necessary ability: Persuasive ability 5, Physical ability 5.

This command enables you to dispatch a spy to an appointed country.
Command/Intelligence can be executed to allies; Active Intervention and
Assassination cannot.

In order to observe countries and leaders with command 8. View, it is
necessary to first send a spy to the other countries to collect
information. Once you have dispatched a spy to a country, you may
continue to observe the status of the country until your spy is caught by
domestic investigation. This command costs 10 units of gold per spy.
You may dispatch more than one spy to different countries with each

Necessary ability: (per spy) Planning ability 5.

This command allows you to dispatch a spy whose purpose is to attack the
defensive strength and economic power of the enemy. Unlike View, whether
a spy succeeds or not, he escapes from your enemy after execution of one
command. This command costs 50 units of gold.

Necessary ability: Physical ability 20.

Assassination means giving a blow to the ability of your enemy's Leader.
If the spy succeeds, all the abilities of your enemy will be reduced by
half. Like Active Intervention, the spy escapes from the enemy after one
execution. This command costs 100 units of gold. But this command
cannot be used against the other players when the game is being played by
more than one player.

Necessary ability: Military ability 20.

The purpose of this command is to find an enemy spy hiding in your
country and to eliminate him. 20 units of gold are needed to execute
this command.

Necessary ability: Leadership ability 5, Planning ability 5.

* L. WAR
You need to expand your territory to achieve a unified nation of your
own. You may attack any neighbouring country. Executing this command
requires provisions, soldiers, and also an amount of gold equal to the
number of soldiers. Even if you have many soldiers, only a number of
soldiers equal to the amount of gold may be sent into battle.
There are two kinds of war; when a leader himself goes to war, or when
Candidate for Governor is sent as leader into battle. Select between
these two kinds of war. Enter the number of soldiers, the amount of
provisions and the number of the individual who will lead the attack.
See 10. BATTLE DISPLAY for details.
Necessary ability: under the command of a leader: Leadership ability 40,
Judgement ability 10, Planning ability 5, Military ability 20.
Necessary ability: Under leadership of a Candidate for Governor:
Leadership ability 5, Planning ability 5, Persuasive ability 5.

This command allows you to waive your right to give orders. In the base
country this command will waive all three orders.

These commands are not directly related to game play, but are optional
features. They are not counted as game commands.

This feature allows you to save a game in progress. Since a single error
in judgement, or just plain bad luck, can cause a serious reversal in the
game, it may be wise to save the game data to disk whether things are
going well or before undertaking risky actions.

After selecting the save option, follow the on-screen prompts. Remove
game disk B from drive B(2), and insert your save disk, and hit RETURN.
Up to 10 games can be stored on your save disk (file numbers 1-10).
Enter the number of the file in which you would like to save game data
and press RETURN. If you choose a file that already has a game stored on
it, the previous game data will be erased. After completing the above
operation, change disks again as instructed and hit RETURN.

Follow the directions given on-screen. As in floppy disk drive systems,
you must enter the number of the file on which you wish to save game data
(file numbers 1-10). Game data will be saved on hard disk. Again,
choosing a file with data from a previous game will cause the previous
game data to be erased in favour of your present data. So, please be

* If you have selected SAVE by mistake, hit the ESC key to return to the
Main Menu.

2. WAIT 1-10
This controls the length of time which messages are displayed. This
number may be varied between one to ten. The larger the number, the
longer messages will be displayed. It is set to five when starting the

Controls whether sound effects will be on or off during the game.

Used to turn fixed display on and off. This will have no influence on
the ruler's portrait, map displays, landscape displays and Rendezvous

Used to turn animation on and off.

This option allows you to watch wars in which you are not directly
involved (enemy versus enemy, vassal state vs. enemy, vassal state vs.
vassal state).

7. END
This command is used to finish the game. After having saved the data,
always execute this command to finish the game.

After completing each action described above, hit RETURN.

The ability level of your Leader will decrease every time you execute a
command. The ability level needed to issue each command is as follows:

| 1 | Tax | Change Tax Rate | 5 | |
| | | Collect Special Tax | 10 | |
| | | | | |
| 2 | Distribute | Population | 5 | |
| | | Distribution | | |
| | | Soldier Distribution | 5 | |
| | | | | |
| 3 | Give | | | |
| | | | | |
| 4 | Train | Soldiers | 5 | |
| | | Governor Candidate | | |
| | | Self | | |
| | | Non Combatants | | |
| | | | | |
| 5 | Merchant | | | 5 |
| | | | | |
| 6 | Personnel | Transfer | 5 | 10 |
| | | Select | 5 | 10 |
| | | Remove | 5 | 10 |
| | | Nominate | 5 | 10 |
| | | Marry | | 10 |
| | | Recruit | 20 | |
| | | | | |
| 7 | Rendezvous | Empress is obedient | | |
| | | To You | | |
| | | Express Your Love | | |
| | | Physical Force Your Love | | |
| | | Upon Her | | |
| | | Buy Her Love | | |
| | | | | |
| 8 | View | Countries | | *5 |
| | | Leaders | | *5 |
| | | Allies | | |
| | | Governor Candidates | | |
| | | Children | | |
| | | Inventory | | |
| | | | | |
| 9 | Move | Self | | |
| | | Population | | 10 |
| | | Gold/Provisions | 5 | 5 |
| | | Specialty Items | | |
| | | | | |
| 10 | Send | | | |
| | Policy | | 5 | 5 |
| | | | | |
| 11 | Diplomacy | Become Vassal State | | |
| | | Give Tribute | | |
| | | Ally With Us | | |
| | | | | |
| 12 | Espionage | Intelligence | | |
| | | Active Intervention | | |
| | | Assassination | | |
| | | Domestic Investigation | | |
| | | | | |
| 13 | War | Self | 40 | 10 |
| | | Governor Candidate | 10 | 5 |
| | | | | |
| 14 | Pass | | | |
| | | | | |
| 15 | Other | | | |

| | | | | | IN BASE |
| 1 | | 5 | | | N |
| | | 10 | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 1 | 5 | | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| | 5 | | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 3 | 5 | | | | N |
| 4 | | | | | N |
| | | 5 | | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| | | 5 | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 6 | 5 | | | | Y |
| | 5 | | | | N |
| | 5 | | | | Y |
| | 5 | | | | Y |
| | 10 | | | | Y |
| | | 10 | | 10 | N |
| | | | | | |
| 7 | | 5 | 10 | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| | 5 | 5 | 10 | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| | | 5 | 10 | 5 | Y |
| | 5 | 10 | 5 | Y | |
| | | | | | |
| 8 | | | | | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 9 | | | 20 | | Y |
| | | 10 | | | Y |
| | | | | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| 10 | | 5 | | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| 11 | | 25 | 5 | 10 | Y |
| | | 15 | 5 | 5 | Y |
| | | 5 | 5 | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| 12 | | | | | N |
| | | | 20 | | N |
| | | | | 20 | N |
| | | | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 13 | | | | 20 | Y |
| | | | | | Y |
| | | | | | |
| 14 | | | | | N |
| | | | | | |
| 15 | | | | | N |

When a Leader, a Governor or a Candidate for Governor goes to war and the
war is won, all abilities of the leaders will be raised by the amounts
listed below. Whether the country is administered by computer or by you,
the same measures are taken. All ability levels will not fall if the war
is lost.

Leadership ability: 30 Judgement ability: 15 Planning ability: 10

Persuasive ability: 10 Physical ability: 20 Military ability: 25

Whether a war is won or not, the ability level will not be changed when
you are attacked by an enemy. The result of a war also does not affect
the leader's ability when the war was lead by a Candidate for Governor,
or if the war took place in a vassal state or an area under direct


These are seasonal events which occur every spring and change the value
of game parameters:

Provisions are provided for the citizens. The amount of provisions equal
to half the number of citizens is distributed. When you are short of
provisions, the number of citizens will decrease.

Every individual grows one year older. Any one who has reached the end
of his life span will die at this time.

Children are born in proportion to the frequency of execution of the
Rendezvous command. You may have a maximum of five children.

Since some children will come of age (because of A), the number of
citizens will increase.

Taxes will be collected from the citizens in gold, according to the
taxation rate.

(6) PAY
1 unit of gold will be paid per soldier. If there is a shortage of gold,
the number of soldiers will automatically decrease.

These seasonal events occur every fall and change the values of game

The harvest is determined by the sum of all citizens assigned to food
production and specialty production in that year. When an enemy plunders
your town during a war, the harvest will decrease.


This often occurs in the northern countries in winter. The Northern
countries are: Mongolia (the entire country), The Chin Empire, The
Cumans, The Russian Principalities, The Teutonic Order, Poland, England,
The Uighur, Hsi Hsia, Tu Fan, Korea, and Japan.

This often occurs in the southern countries in summer.
The Southern countries are: The Chin Empire, Korea, Japan, The Sultanate
of Delhi, The Sultanate of Ghore, The Pagan Nations, Nan Sung, Dai Viet
and Ta li.

This will occur randomly in spring and fall.

This occurs if the taxation rate is too high, and the Morale of the
country is low.
If an uprising occurs, the screen will change to the battle display and
war will begin (if you select Battle Field OFF with command 15. The
screen will not change during uprisings in other countries, only in your
base and in areas under your direct control). In the base and in areas
under direct control, enter the appropriate commands. The fighting power
is low in areas under direct control, since the leader is not actually

A mutiny is a military revolt by a subordinate Governor, or a Candidate
for Governor, who is attempting to overthrow the leader. There are two
kinds of mutinies:

(a) Mutiny by Candidate for Governor:
There are two cases. One is when a Candidate for Governor revolts the
base, and the other when he moves to an area under direct control to
revolt. In both cases the screen will change to the battle display.

(b) Mutiny by Governor:
A Governor mutinies in his ruling country and becomes independent. The
screen will not change to the battle display, since no battle actually
takes place.
In the list of Candidate for Governors, displayed with command 8. View,
Candidates for Governor marked with a marriage flag (*) will never revolt
since they are relatives of their leader.

Provisions may be stolen by noncombatants. This event is likely to occur
when Morale is low or if you have a disproportionate amount of provisions
for the number of citizens.

When you attack another country with command 13. War, or are attacked,
the screen will change from the main display to the battle display, and a
topographical map of the country is displayed. Each country has its own
unique geographical features.

a. The topographical map of the countries at war are displayed as
hexagons. Units at both sides are laid out on these hexagons.

b. The year, season. number of the country in which the war takes place,
numbers of days left and data on the attacking and defending sides
will be displayed in order from the top.

Using combat command 6. Intelligence (12.6), this list will change to
unit status, commander status and military intelligence.

c. Command messages are displayed.

d. Provisions.

There are eight kinds of hexagons used to show the topographical feature
of each country. The topographical map is made up of these eight kinds
of hexagons.

(A dark filled hexagon)
This area is an outside country and cannot be entered. It cannot be

(A hexagon with bits of grass in it)
Simple flat land. Plains offer a unit no offensive or defensive

Necessary mobility: 3.

(A hexagon with trees in it)
For infantry and archers, the forest is preferable to the plains for
defensive purposes. The defensive strength of the cavalry, however, will
be reduced. The forest is suitable for hunting.
The number of soldiers will decrease when moving in the forest, since
some will drop behind.

Necessary mobility: 4.

(A hexagon with mountains in it)
For infantry and archers, mountainous terrain is preferable to the forest
for defensive purposes. The defensive strength of the cavalry, however,
is reduced. The number of soldiers will decrease when moving in the
mountainous terrain.

Necessary mobility: 5.

(A hexagon with stones in it)
For infantry and archers, the desert is preferable to the plains for
defensive purposes. For the cavalry, defensive strength is greatly
reduced. The number of soldiers will be decreased at a higher rate when
moving in deserts than in mountainous terrain.

Necessary mobility: 6.

(A hexagon that appears to be filled with water!)
The defensive strength of infantry, archers and cavalry will all be
greatly reduced. The number of soldiers will decrease greatly when
moving through ocean or lake.

Necessary mobility: 8.

(A hexagon with houses in it)
There is always the danger that an enemy command unit will plunder a town
when it invades. Care should be taken not to allow a town to be invaded
by any command unit. A unit fighting defensive operations from a town is
at a great advantage to one fighting defence on the plains.

Necessary mobility: 4.

(A hexagon with a castle in it)
The castle is the best position for defensive operations. However, when
under attack, the castle's defence strength will be gradually reduced.
When the castle defensive strength value becomes less than 20, the castle
is actually worse than a town for defensive purposes.
When the castle is being occupied by the enemy's command unit, it is very
important to have your command unit ready in a neighbouring hexagon to
fight back against the enemy. Otherwise, the soldiers will lose trust in
their commander and the Morale level will drop.

Necessary mobility: 5.

Each unit marker in a hexagon, displays the unit number, the type of
unit, and the number of soldiers.

A--------->| 1 | horse |<-------B
+---+ |
| 20 |

A. The unit number is displayed here. A white number on a red background
represents the attacking side; a white number on a blue background
represents the defensive side.
The commander unit is displayed with a white O or X. O indicates that
the leader is personally in command, while an X indicates that the
leader is not in command, so the army is being led by one of the
leader's generals.
Note that the number one unit is not the command unit.

B. DISPLAY OF TYPE UNIT. There are three types of units:

CAVALRY: (Picture of a horse)
The cavalry unit is superior in mobility. It is overwhelmingly strong on
the plains. But when it invades a forest battlefield or mountainous
terrain, its defensive strength will drop, unlike other units.

INFANTRY: (Picture of a sword)
This unit has an average fighting strength, but it is not as powerful as
the cavalry unit. It can make one special attack: ambush.

ARCHERS: (Picture of a bow and arrow)
This unit is not suitable for a general attack, but it has some
advantages over the cavalry unit. Archers are not as powerful as the
cavalry when attacking infantry, but they can make long-range attacks,
firing on an enemy in a battlefield one hexagon distant from them.

C. The number of soldiers in the unit are given in multiples of ten. If
the number drops to 0 this means that less than 10 soldiers remain and
that the unit is nearly destroyed.

Deploying troops on the battle display's hexagons is the first stage of
war. The attacking army deploys first. Troops can only be deployed on
hexagons with a black square in the middle.

These squares are called appearance-and-withdrawal points. The yellow
number on the black square is the country number to which the appearance-
and-withdrawal point belongs. Only one unit can be deployed per hexagon.

When the attacking army has finished its deployment, the defending army
will be allowed to deploy their units.
The defending army may deploy its troops anywhere on the map, excluding
the attacking side's appearance-and-withdrawal points.

To deploy you will need to use the 1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and 9 key to move each
unit, and then the 0 key to fix the unit in its initial position.

The diagram below shows how the key pad keys are used to direct movement.

7 __|__ 9
\/ \/
/ \
\ /
1 | 3

After both sides have deployed their units, the battle will begin with
the attacking army issuing a command. The attacking army issues one
command to each of its units; first to the command unit and then to the

The defending army then responds by issuing one order to each of its
units. A day is considered to have passed after both sides have issued
one set of orders, and one day is called a turn.

The length of the battle in days depends on how many orders remained at
the time you issued command 13. War (7.13). For example, if three orders
remained when you executed command 13. War you can continue the war up to
90 days. If two orders remained you can continue fighting for up to 60
days. With one order, up to 30 days.

When provisions run out during war, you automatically lose.

To issue commands to each unit, hit RETURN after entering the appropriate
numbers, using the key pad.

(1) If the defensive side's command unit is completely destroyed.
(2) If the defensive side's command unit retreats.
(3) If the defensive side runs out of provisions.
(4) If the defensive side's command unit surrenders.
(5) If the defensive side's leader is captured in one-to-one combat.

(1) If the attacking side's command unit is completely destroyed.
(2) If the attacking side's command unit retreats.
(3) If the attacking side runs out of provisions.
(4) If the attacking side's command unit surrenders.
(5) If the attacking side's leader is captured in one-to-one combat.
(6) If the attacking side reaches the maximum number of days in which it
can continue the battle.

* When the defensive side merely pushes back the attacking side, the
attacking soldiers and their commander can return to their country with
their provisions.

* When both sides meet the conditions for winning at the same time, the
defensive side automatically wins. The commander of the attacking side
is then considered to have been captured by the enemy.

If the attacking side wins the war, the defeated country becomes the
winner's property. When your country wins, you have to deal with the
following matters.

(1) Whether or not you take their Empress. ('Shall we take their Empress
for your own? (Y/N)') If you frequently execute the Rendezvous
command, the Empress could have a baby who might become your

(2) Selecting the ruler of the country (How will you govern the
country...?) You select the ruler of the country which becomes your
leader's property. Select: 1: By invader 2: By former ruler
3: Directly controlled.

(3) Dealing with the enemy's leader. (How will you deal with the
prisoner...?) You decide how to handle prisoners, the enemy's leader
or Governor. Select: 1: Candidate for Governor 2: Execute 3: Set
free. If you selected 2: By former ruler in (2), selection (3) is
not needed, since the enemy's leader or Governor continues ruling the
country as before.

(4) Selecting a new ruler to replace the victorious leader (How should we
govern country...?) This selection should only be made when you
have chosen 1: By invader, to rule the conquered country in (2).
Since the invader will rule the conquered country, you must find a
replacement for him in his former country. Select from: 1: Candidate
for Governor 2: Area under direct control.

(5) Choosing an outstanding man as a Candidate for Governor (His name
is... Do you want to use him?) There are some outstanding men in
the defender's country. Decide whether you wish to use them as
Candidate for Governor. In the game GENGHIS KHAN, even if you
overthrow a king with vassal states, you only obtain his base, not
the vassal states or the area under his direct control.

If you are defending and capture the enemy commander you must decide how
to deal with him. Select: 1: Execute 2: Set free
However, either command will help you obtain the country which he was

Decide how to deal with the leader:

1: Execute 2: Set free.

1: Candidate for Governor 2: Execute 3: Set free.

Candidate for Governor means that you continue to accept him as Candidate
for Governor. Enter the appropriate number.
After suppressing a war, mutiny or uprising, Morale will decrease. In
order to increase Morale, you should distribute gold, provisions and
specialty items to the citizens.

When you lose a war, the country belongs to the victor and must be
surrendered. If your Leader is waging a war and appears about to lose,
you should have him retreat to a neighbouring country.

If your Leader attacks another country and is killed, you can continue to
play by choosing his successor, but only if he has sons older than ten
years in the base. If not, the game is over at this point.

There are six different commands for use on the battle display. Each
command in turn has sub commands, so in all there are 15 available
patterns of action.

| 1 | Move | 1: Entire Unit Move |
| | | 2. Divide Unit And Move |
| | | |
| 2 | Attack | 1: Normal Attack |
| | | 2: Long Range Attack |
| | | 3: One-on-one Combat |
| | | 4: Ambush |
| | | |
| 3 | Stand By | |
| | | |
| 4 | Special Orders | 1: Demand Surrender |
| | | 2: Ask for reinforcements |
| | | 3: Plunder |
| | | 4: Hunt |
| | | |
| 5 | Withdraw | |
| | | |
| 6 | Intelligence | 1: Unit Status |
| | | 2: Commander status |
| | | 3: Military Intelligence |
| | | |

Use this command to move a unit to another hexagon.
Each unit has a fixed value for Mobility, and everytime you make one
move, the Mobility level for one move on the topographical map will be
reduced. You can move until Mobility runs out. However, if you attempt
to pass by an enemy unit, you may move only one space and will
automatically stop in that hexagon even if Mobility is remaining. If you
have four or more times the number of soldiers of the neighbouring enemy,
this restriction will not be imposed upon you. The number of soldiers
will some times decrease during movement according to the topography of
the hexagon.

The entire unit moves, and can do so until its Mobility is used up. You
cannot share a hexagon already occupied by an enemy unit, or by units of
your own forces when the unit is of a different type. However, units may
join when both units are the same type. It is impossible to share a
hexagon with a unit lying in ambush or hunting. To use the Entire Unit
Move command use the key pad to enter the direction of movement. It is
not necessary to hit RETURN after entering these directions. When you
wish to stop before using up Mobility, hit RETURN.

This means dividing one unit multiple units. Cavalry with a Mobility
value of more than 13, or infantry and archers with a Mobility value of
more than 11 can execute this command. Upon division units may only move
into adjacent hexagons, regardless of Mobility value. In this command, a
unit may not move into a hexagon occupied by any other unit, even if they
are both of the same type of unit. Each new unit created by this command
is from then on considered as an independent unit, and all the combat
commands will be issued separately from the other units.

To use this command, first enter the number of soldiers you wish to
divide and hit RETURN. Next, enter the direction of movement (1, 2, 3,
7, 8, 9) and hit RETURN. Repeat the same operation as many times as the
number of divisions to be made. Since only ten units are allowed to
fight on the battle display, however, you cannot create more than ten
units. This command can be cancelled by hitting RETURN.

Use this command to attack an enemy unit in a bordering hexagon. Only
archers can make a longe range attack and fire upon an enemy one hexagon
away from them.

Cavalry is the most powerful unit in a normal attack. Indicate the
direction in which you wish to attack with the key pad.

Only archers can make this attack. The number of times they can attack
will be limited to the level of offensive strength. Whether the arrows
hit the target or not depends on the degree of training. Enter the
direction in which you wish to attack with the key pad.

The command will be executed and counted, so be careful in issuing this
command and setting direction.

When both side's command units are on neighbouring hexagons, the command
for one-to-one combat can be made, but only once per war.
A command unit in an area under direct control cannot issue this command.
Since victory depends on the ability of the leader or Governor, there are
some cases in which you cannot make one-to-one combat; for example, if
the ability of the opposing leader is very low, in which the opposing
side doesn't take up the challenge, even if you want to. If this
happens, the Leadership ability and Military ability of the leader or
Governor, who has refused to take up the challenge will be reduced by
half. If you win in one-to-one combat, you can take the enemy commander
prisoner. Even if you cannot take him prisoner, 20% of the enemy
soldiers will come to fight for you.

Ambush is a method of attack only available to the infantry. The unit is
temporarily hidden while it waits for the enemy to invade any one of the
six surrounding hexagons at which point it will attack. A command unit,
however, cannot use the Ambush command, even if it is assigned to
infantry. If successful, an Ambush can cause major damage to the enemy

The number of times you can execute this command within each war depends
on the Training value. Indicate the hexagon in which the unit is to be
hidden with the key pad.

If a full turn passes without an ambush taking place you will be asked
whether you wish to stand by or cancel the Ambush.

The unit simply waits on the current hexagon when you stand by, and your
mobility level is increased. The maximum level is 15 for cavalry and 13
for all others.

When the command unit of both sides are at war and one seems about to
lose, the stronger leader can demand surrender.

If there is sufficient gold and soldiers in your own country bordering
on a warring country, the command unit can request reinforcements, but
only once per country per war. It is necessary for a command unit to be
positioned on an appearance-and-withdrawal point of the country from
which you wish to request reinforcements. Reinforcements will arrive
three days after being requested, but will arrive without provisions.
Therefore, pay attention to the amount of remaining provisions. Also,
the number of soldiers requested is not always provided.

Only the command unit can plunder an enemy town when it invades. Through
plunder, additional provisions can be obtained. The defensive side's
units may not plunder a town in its own country. If special taxes are
collected in a town on the main display, that town cannot be plundered
until the next fall season.

Any unit can hunt, providing that it is the forest, and not bordering on
an enemy unit. Since the unit engaged in this activity spends the next
day hunting, the message 'The unit is hunting' is displayed, and no
commands can be given during the turn. Provisions can be obtained by

When your country is bordering on a warring country, the unit can retreat
to your country. This can be done only under the condition that the unit
is on an appearance-and-withdrawal point in the country from which it is
to retreat.

If a leader who has the maximum five Candidates for Governor retreats to
his vassal state, the Governor of the vassal state will automatically
give up his post.

This displays the exact number of soldiers of each unit, both on the
attacking and defending sides.

This command enables you to see the abilities of the leaders of both the
defending and attacking sides.

This is the command used to observe the appearance-and-withdrawal points,
defensive strength, Morale, offensive strength, and training of the
defensive country. The number displayed on every appearance-and-
withdrawal point is the number for the country owning the appearance-and-
withdrawal point.

(A grey wolf came down from the heavens, his wife was a white doe. They
came across a large lake.)


On the northern edge of the northern part of China - to the north of the
Great Walls of China, lies a large desert called the Gobi Desert.

It is an immense expanse of sand and rock mountains. It is no place for
human beings to live in. In the central part of Outer Mongolia which
surrounds the desert, however, are fertile plains where three rivers -
the Oluon River, the Tora River and the Serenga River - join. Nomadic
tribes vied for supremacy on the plains

In and around the Gobi Desert there had long been many revolutions aimed
at supremacy on the plains.

Only those tribes which had tremendous military power could attempt to
control the plains.

And the tribe which could conquer them was to be called the supreme ruler
on the plains and give orders to other small and weak tribes.

The nomadic tribes vied on the grasslands. Horses were their most
valuable assets, their staple food was horsemeat and their favourite
drink horse milk.

All things that horses provide was valuable to them. Their land had no
orchards or buildings. Their only pleasure was choosing the best horses,
cows and sheep from among large herds.

It is said that the name Mongolia, which now refers to a large grasslands
with a total land area of 3,340,000 square meters and a population of
3,000,000, was originally the name of a small nomadic tribe living in a
small area located to the northeast of the Gobi Desert or in the
catchment area of the Amur River in Manchuria. However, at that time the
Mongol tribe was also seeking an opportunity to make inroads into the
plains, using Mount Burghan as their base. They had no pastureland large
enough to feed cattle, and therefore they had no choice but to live by

In 1155, a baby boy was born to the head of the tribe. He was born with
a clot of blood in one of his hands. He was named Temujin. A grey wolf
came down from the heavens. His wife was a white doe. They came across
a large lake. Baschi Khan who was born in Mount Burghan, the catchment
area of the River Onon...

This passage from an old legend describes the origin of the Mongol tribe:
a strong wolf sent to this planet by the Gods married a tender and
beautiful doe.

From his childhood, Temujin heard this legend told repeatedly and was
enchanted by the story.

He used to fall asleep picturing to himself the grey wolf with muscles as
soft and nimble as springs, bronze hair and coldly staring eyes.

Temujin's father was the head of the Bordighin tribe and respected by all
members of the tribe. Temujin played with his brothers and sisters -
Qasar, Qchiun, Temuge and Temulun, and also with his half brothers -
Pekuter and Belugutei. He enjoyed a very happy and peaceful boyhood. On
the other hand, his father was always busy. His tribe was at odds with
the Taichid, another Mongol tribe, and furthermore, it was in conflict
with the Tartar tribe, the largest and strongest tribe in the area.

When Temujin was nine years old, his father decided to find a girl to
marry Temujin. One day, his father took Temujin to the tent of a member
of the Ongirat tribe, where Temujin met a beautiful girl, who was to
become his wife later. Her name was Borte.

One day, however, his boyhood ceased to be a peaceful one. His father
was killed with poison in a plot laid by the Tartar tribe.

All other members of his father's tribe, who had respected and obeyed his
father, ran away with their cows, horses, sheep, tents, and all other
possessions. Immediately after the funeral service for him, leaving his
wife and children behind. It was next to impossible for a woman and her
little children to live on the Mongol plains alone.

His wife chased the tribe on horseback and holding a banner, overtook
them and tried to persuade them to remain. She punished severely those
who resisted her persuasion. As a result, about half of the tribe
changed their minds and decided to remain. Later on, however, they also
ran away. Temujin and his brothers and sisters pledged to revenge
themselves on the other members of his father's tribe for their

The bereaved family now had to provide for themselves. They had to walk
up the Onon River to gather wild grass, wander about in forests to find
and pick up nuts. They ploughed a field in front of their tent, took
care of their sheep, and went fishing whenever they had time to spare.
They were reduced to extreme poverty, but this poverty made them as
persevering, defiant, brave and militant as wild animals.

Temujin, with the help of his younger brother Qasar, killed Pekuter who
had never obeyed him. This saddened their mother.

It appeared Temujin himself had become beastly. However, before long he
grew to be a man or power competent enough to lead his family and decide
on all matters relating to his family. Even his mother was not permitted
to object his decisions.

He managed to increase the number of his family's cows and horses. It
seemed as if his family were at long last becoming prosperous.

On the other hand, people of the Bordighin tribe who had deserted them
were now under the control of Targhutai of the Taichiud tribe and their
lives were not happy. Many members of the tribe were heard to talk in
whispers: 'Temujin, who was once a mere chick, seems to have grown to be
able to fly on his own.'

'Now is the time to put an end to those kids' lives.' 'If we do not pluck
those chicks now, we may face difficulties in the future.' And they did
what they had said.

Taraghutai, the leader of the Taichiud tribe, made a surprise attack on
Temujin's tent, directing 300 of his men on a summer night.

But Temujin and his family reacted to this promptly. Being as watchful
as wild animals, they had long anticipated such a surprise attack.

After ordering all his family members to hide themselves, he hid himself
in a wood and stayed there for seven days. He was about to die of hunger
when he was captured. He was then tied to a log with ropes, but he hit
the watchman over the head with the log and ran away. He gave his
pursuers the slip by hiding himself in a bog, covering his face and
breathing with a reed. He managed to meet his family again.

Thus he was able to save the lives of all his family, but after this
incident they had to leave their native place and begin a new life in a
new place. Almost every day Temujin and Belgutei caught and ate field
mice. They also bartered the mice skins for sheep.

Temujin was now 17 years old. His mother began to insist that Borte,
Temujin's fiancee, should live with them. It seemed to Temujin that an
increase in the number of family members was indispensable to his
family's return to prosperity.
He headed for the tent of the Ongirat tribe to receive Borte as his
bride. Borte had grown up to be a dazzlingly beautiful woman. Seeing
her Temujin felt he was having a dream.

Deicetin, Borte's father, said to him, 'The son of the Khan of Mongol has
come to us to receive my daughter, as promised, as a man who has overcome
unbelievably many difficulties and has become as strong as the legendary
wolf. I, for my part, have to be as good as my word. I will give my
daughter Borte to this tough youth.'

With Borte added to his family as his bride, Temujin's tent became more
and more lively and prosperous. Temujin made a special tent called an
ordo in which to live with Borte and had tents for Borte's attendants
built around it.

At that time, Temujin met a strange boy named Porutie. He was very
nimble and proficient in horse riding. Temujin was completely enchanted
by this little boy. He had the boy join his tribe, together with Jerme,
who was Temujin's industrious childhood friend. In this way, he
gradually expanded his tribe.

Temujin left his family so they could hide themselves in a wood. His
half brother Beruku felled trees and made a fence to defend his brothers
and sister while Qasar, who was a master archer, stood ready to use his
skills. However, the Taichiud tribe set out with all its might to
capture Temujin. They found him alone and unprotected. Tarughutai, the
head of the Taichiud tribe, had Temujin fettered and handcuffed.
Tarughutai and his men had a drunken feast on the bank of the Onon river.
After the red sun had sunk beyond the tops of the trees, they all went
back to their tent, leaving a watchman behind.

Temujin suddenly found himself with all the strength of a wild animal.
He overpowered the watchman and ran away.

Borte, Temujin's wife, was one year older than Temujin. It is said that
from old times there were many beautiful women in Ongirato, her native
place. Borte was in this tradition.

Temujin was named after the head of a group of enemies who Temujin's
father brought to his tent as a captive after conquering the Tartar
tribe. When his father arrived at the tent, he was told that a baby boy
had been born and he named the baby boy the name of the enemy leader.

It was about this time that Temujin became aware of the presence of
Tooril Khan, who was considered the most influential ruler on the plains
of Mongol. Tooril was the head of the Kerait tribe, a tribe rumoured to
have tremendous military power.

Temujin met Tooril with many gifts to offer him because he thought
getting acquainted with the Khan would do good to him in the future.
Tooril was one of his father's brothers-in-law.

The Kerait tribe was stationed in the 'Black Wood' near the bank of the
River Tora.

Tooril Khan said to Temujin, staring at him coldly, 'In return for these
gifts, I will help you some time in the future. I never lie. But you
must be more mature. You are all still chicks.' He was not treated as a
full man by Tooril, but he was satisfied with the way Tooril treated him.
Now he had many men and the backing of Tooril Khan, the strongest Khan.
He was emerging as the young head of a young tribe.

However, the time came earlier than expected when he had to face a
crucial test to become the wolf. One morning a group of members of the
Merukit tribe made a surprise attack on his tent.

Temujin thought it was impossible to defend against them with his tribe's
present military power. So he ordered 'Spread out!'

His men ran away in all directions.
In the evening he was able to meet his men, but found that an important
person was missing.

It was Borte. Temujin went about on horseback in search of his beloved
Borte in vain. What's worse, he himself was captured by members of the
Merkit tribe.

Temujin had to spend painful days after that. He could make a
counterattack on the Merukito tribe, but there was little chance of his
winning the battle. But it was impossible for him to abandon Borte.

Temujin decided to regain Borte from them. He was ready to die. After
making preparations, he went to the Black Wood, where Tooril Khan's camp
was, to borrow arms.

Tooril listened to what Temujin had to say, staring silently at Temujin.
When Temujin looked up, his eyes met the horrible eyes of Tooril Khan.

'Do you remember I gave you my word?' said Tooril. 'I said that the time
would certainly come when I would help you. All right. Now is the time
to fulfil my promise, I will lead my army of 20,000 troops and kill them all.
And I will regain Borte from them for you.'

Tooril had long been seeking an opportunity to destroy the Merukito
tribe. Being a man as cunning as a tiger, Tooril had been looking for an
excuse for destroying them.

If he attacked and killed without any justifiable reason, he would be
criticized for it. Unaware of Tooril's deeply laid plan, Temujin stood
rooted to the ground, too glad to move at the unexpected good luck.

Then he heard someone cry, 'Temujin!' Looking back, he saw a fat man
approaching him with a gentle smile.

'Oh, Jamukha!' 'Yes, I am Jamukha. When young, you and I promised to be
brothers by exchanging deer bones. I will lend you my army of 20,000
troops. Let's fight the Merkits together.'

Temujin felt himself trembling from inside his body. As many as 40,000
soldiers were going to fight for him!

The invasion into the Merukito plains by the allied forces led by
Temujin, Jamukha and Tooril respectively began at the break of dawn. The
battle was over before sunset. The 10,000 Merkit soldiers were destroyed
as if they had been thrown into a flood.

'Borte! Borte!' Temujin ran about amid flames in search of his wife.

Borte, who had thought she would never see Temujin again, was surprised
to see her husband coming toward her, and muttered, 'Temujin!'

The battle ended in the allied force's overwhelming victory. All men of
the Merkit tribe were killed. Thousands of women and treasures were
gathered in a plaza. Tooril asked Temujin to take his share of the
trophy, but he refused to take it. It was his intention to take the
Golbonak plains after Tooril and Jamukha have taken their share of the

Peace returned. Borte gave birth to a baby.

Tooril Khan, head of the Kerait tribe, was notorious for his cruelty and
his ambition to be supreme ruler of the Mongol plains. His tribe, which
had pastureland in the valleys or the River Orkon and the River Tora, was
very large and powerful.

Its only rival was the Tartar tribe. About 30,000 adult Kerait men lived
during peace broke out, they immediately prepared themselves for combat
and joined their respective units. Since Tooril was a sworn friend of
Temujin's father, it was quite natural that Temujin turned to him for

Contrary to Temujin's expectations, neither Tooril's troops nor Jamukha's
troops seemed about to withdraw from the Gorganok plains soon.

Although they had joined forces to conquer the Merkits, the Keraits and
the Jadarans, which were both influential tribes, they did not trust in
each other. Only one of the two tribes was going to be the supreme tribe
on the plains. If one began to withdraw from Golnak, the other might
attack from behind.

Under such circumstances, soldiers of Jamukha's army entered Temujin's
tent one after another. Golch, an old prophet of the Bakalin tribe was
one of those who abandoned Jamukha.

The old man came to Temujin and said, 'I received a divine message that
Temujin is the very man that is to be supreme ruler on the Mongol plains.
I asked God, What should I do, then? 'God told me to abandon Jamukha and
go over to Temujin. I did just as I was told by God. And so here am I.'

It appeared that Jamukha had begun to think that Temujin was a hindrance
to him. In fact, he soon began to openly express his hostile feelings
against Temujin. Under his gentle smiles, he had concealed terrifying

Temujin's heart ached. He did not want to fight with Jamukha, who was
his old friend. One night he had his tent dismantled, and his tribe
began to move northward. Some soldiers of the Jadaran tribe joined them
betraying Jamukha.

They moved on and on. When they where going to pass through a village,
they shouted the name of Temujin. The shout meant that anyone who wanted
to join them might follow them.

The name of Temujin, the new hero of Mongol who had won the battle with
the Merukits, was now known to everyone. His tribe expanded rapidly,
absorbing many small and weak tribes.

When they reached the bank of the River Kimurka and took a rest, the
population of a nearly village exceeded 3,000.

They stayed there for a month and during that period several tribes
joined them. Then they started to move toward a better place. It was
vast pasture land stretching as far as the eye could reach.

Immediately after arriving at that place, Temujin declared himself to be
the Khan of Mongol. His competent aides had told him to do so.

They had said to him, 'We will make you the Khan of Mongol. When you
become the Khan of Mongol, we will forestall all our enemies for you. We
will plunder beautiful women and bring them to you. We will present you
the meat of the belly of a wild animal living on the plains and the meat
of the chest of a wild animal standing on the cliff.'

'If we betray you in a battle, you may force us to be separated from our
men, wives and children and throw our heads away onto the ground. If we
betray you in peacetime, you may separate us from our men, wives and
children and throw our bodies on wasteland.'

In 1189, Temujin was 34 years old.

Four years passed.

At long last Jamukha began an attack on Temujin. Jamukha's army of
30,000 soldiers was overwhelmingly strong as expected. It was the first
battle Temujin had fought as the Khan of Mongol.
His army's only, and most serious, weakness was that while they were as
strong as a fierce god when they took the offensive, they became
extremely weak when they were put on the defensive. In this battle, his
army was put on the defensive and Jamukha's army trampled them underfoot.

Temujin lost hundreds of men in this battle. Judging from the scale of
the battle, this damage was relatively small. Bobhorchu, Jerme, Qasar
and Perukutai were all safe. On the other hand, Jamukha's army appeared
not completely satisfied with their victory in the battle. The balance
of power on the plains remained unchanged, with Tooril Khan, Jamukha,
Temujin and the Tartars still vying for supremacy on the plains. Four
years passed. Temujin's military aides had become irritated: Who would
be their next enemy? Jamukha or Tooril? If it was Tooril to whom
Temujin owed much and who was indeed a great khan, they had to fight with

However, Temujin had decided on his next target. It was the Tartars who
wielded stable power in the northeastern part of the plains.

At that time, the Tartars were under attack from the big army of the Chin
Empire which came all the way from beyond the Great Wall of China. He
thought this was the best time for his army to make an assault on them.
Many of his men had been injured and killed in battles with them.
Furthermore, his father had been killed by them.

Temujin got in touch with Tooril again. As in his conquer of the
Merukits ten years ago, he wanted to join forces with Tooril this time

Now Temujin's army was large and strong. It was considered large and
strong enough to destroy the Tartars without Tooril's help. However,
Temujin was aware of the difficulty Tooril had felt ten years ago: it
would be easy to destroy the Tartar tribe, but it was a branch of the
Mongol tribe. If he destroyed them, all other tribes would accuse him of
treachery. This had to be avoided if he was to attain his ultimate goal
of unifying all the tribes on the plain.

Tooril immediately started from his tent, leading the entire army. The
Tartars were a hindrance to him, too. Temujin's army of 30,000 soldiers
joined Tooril's ten days after Tooril's departure from his tent.

Strong as they were the Tartars now stood helpless, being attacked on
three sides by the armies of the Chin Empire, the Mongol and Kuriets.
After seven days of deadly battles, they were completely destroyed. All
male members of the Tartar tribe were killed, with their heads cut in
two. Temujin and Tooril equally shared females and other treasures of
the affluent tribe.

The head of the army of the Chin Empire thanked Tooril Khan and Temujin
for their cooperation. But Temujin had mixed feelings. From his
childhood, he had always thought that after he had conquered the Mongol
plains, his next target would be the Chin Empire, which lay flourishing
beyond the Great Wall of China.

He would have to make an attack on the army of the Chin Empire in return
for its head's gratitude to him. But now he was not in a position to
attempt this ultimate goal. Unification of all tribes on the Mongol
plains was his immediate challenge.

Thus a significant change was made in the balance of power on the Mongol
plains. The Tartars had disappeared.

It was four years after the collapse of the Tartar tribe that Jamukha
started on a massive invasion into the plains. His tribe had become very
large, conquering the tribes of the Ongirat, Borte's native place,
Kirghiz and Taiorat, and absorbing the remnants of such destroyed tribes
as the Tartars and the Merkits.

Tooril and Temujin joined forces for the third time. Their battle with
Jamukha was terrific. The flames of war spread over the Mongol plains.

Both armies were locked in mortal combat on the Serenga River, the Orkon
River, the Keruren River and many other rivers. Deadlocks were reported
one after another.

Temujin sent out Bobhorchu's units, Qasar's units and then Perktai's
units. Tooril was also sending out his entire army.

Tooril Khan's army was headed for the lower reaches of the River Keruren,
and Temujin's army for the middle reaches of the River Onon.

During his battle with the Taichiuds, Temujin obtained another competent
aide. An expert archer shot an arrow at Temujin's artery and he narrowly
escaped death.

The next day the archer was captured and confessed that he had shot the
arrow at Temujin. Moved by his manly attitude, Temujin forgave him and
named him 'Arrow'.

Temujin had an unforgettable grudge against the Taichiuds. Long ago,
when Temujin's tent was occupied only by himself, his mother and his
brothers, they attacked the tent mercilessly and drove Temujin and his
family out of their native place.

Temujin ordered his army to kill all members of the Taichiud tribe.
Although some of his childhood friends were now among the Taichiud, he
could not afford to mind that. How could he forgive them? They had
deserted him and his family.

Although he had failed to catch Jamukha, he received Tooril's message
that the army of the Jadarans had been completely destroyed. The battle
had ended in a big victory for him.

Temujin and Tooril divided equally the right to own tribes which had
sided with Jamukha. Thus the Mongol plains were now divided into two.
The only remaining target was the Naimans.

The Naimans, who were of Turkish descent, controlled West Asia and were
based at the foot of the Altai. In the last war, they had sent
reinforcements to Jamukha for some unknown reason.

Learning that Temujin was making an assault on them, they prayed for
rain. But the result was that it rained heavily in their own territory,
preventing them from marching on. Many soldiers fell into pools made on
the banks of rivers. They ran away, saying, 'We are not protected by our

But his victory in this battle did not mean that he had completely
destroyed the Naimans.

Tooril said to Temujin, 'We will have to make another attack on them
jointly.' Temujin nodded without saying anything. A year after that,
they made a joint attack on the Naimans.

In the spring of 1203, Temujin and Tooril attacked the Naimans.

Temujin foresaw that the moment the Naimans were destroyed, there would
remain only the Mongols and the Kereits on the Mongol plains and that a
fierce battle between him and Tooril would be inevitable soon after that.
Of course, Tooril was also aware of the possibility. Two great spirits
could not exist together. There was going to be one supreme ruler on the
The armies of Temujin and Tooril marched slowly for the Altai, now well
aware that a crucial moment was close at hand.

The two armies destroyed the army of the Builuks, which had constituted
the front line of the Naimans. But it was soon after this battle that a
fight was started between the Mongols and the Kereits. The battle lasted
until evening. During the following three days, the Mongols continued
chasing fugitive Kereits. The dead body of Tooril was discovered four
days later. Tooril's death meant the end of the Kereit tribe which long
had maintained unrivalled military power.

It was not until the next year that Temujin's army surged into the
territory of the Naimans. He let soldiers take a rest after the battle
with the Kereits.

When his army rushed into the territory of the Naimans, Temujin found to
his great surprise that his sworn friend Jamukha was now his enemy and
had been serving Tayan Khan, the head of the Naimans. Jamukha had warned
Tayan of the power and influence of Temujin and advised him to fight a
decisive battle with Temujin at the earliest possible opportunity.
However, Tayan Khan, who had long been content to reign over the western
part of the Mongol plains, was no match for Temujin, who had fought
deadly battles to destroy his old enemies. Tayan's men were defeated by
Temujin's one after another. Tayan, who had been seriously injured,
asked Jamukha who was attending him, 'Why on earth are they so strong?
What is the secret of their strength?'

'Because they have four strong men, Gebe, Subutai, Khublai and Germe,'
replied Jamukha. He knew Temujin's power and influence full well. He
continued, 'they are four wolves always chasing a flock of sheep. They
eat human flesh. They are kept on iron leashes. They have heads as hard
as bronze and teeth as sturdy as stones, words as sharp as swords, and
hearts as strong as steel. When Temujin beats them with a sword instead
of a whip, they start forward as quick as lightning, fight a battle
drinking dews and eating human flesh and killing their enemies.'

After being chased relentlessly, Tayan Khan's army was completely
destroyed. Now Jamukha had no place to escape to. He was captured and
brought before Temujin.

Temujin looked at him sorrowfully and said, 'Jamukha, let's be friends
again. I have never forgotten that we are old sworn friends.'

He really meant what he said. 'Nonsense!' retorted Jamukha, 'You have no
choice but to kill me right away. If you don't kill me. I will continue
to plan to kill you for the rest of my life. I have lost this battle to
you simply because I was unlucky.'

'However,' he continued, 'If you want to be kind to one of your sworn
friends, kill me without letting my blood spill. Bury my dead body in a

Temujin stood up quietly, ordered one of his aides to kill him without
letting his body spill blood, and left.

In ancient Mongolia it was customary to kill a noble man without letting
his body spill blood. Blood was considered the root of soul. It was
believed that if a man was killed with his body spilling no blood, his
soul continued to live in peace.

Soon after that Temujin received news that a charged atmosphere prevailed
among the Merkits. Immediately after returning to his tent, Temujin went
out and subjugated the rebels. As a result of this battle, Temujin
obtained a beautiful woman named Qulan. She was a woman of spirit, quite
unlike Borte and many other women. Temujin knew by intuition that he was
going to love this woman all his life.

In the spring of 1206 the senior members of all tribes of the Mongol
plains participated in a great conference. A decision was about to be
Temujin glanced over the conference hall, which was crowded with many
representatives from all tribes of the Mongol plains.
Also there was Hoern, Temujin's mother, Borte, his wife, and his children
Juchi, Chagatai, Ogotai, and Tului. Qulan and many other of his
concubines watched together with his brothers - Qasar, Belgutei, Qachium
and Temuge.

His brave men - Boghorchu, Germe, Gebe, Mukai, Subutai and Khublai and
his prophet Khorchin stared at him.

'Genghis Khan!' suddenly shouted a senior member of the Khuriltai tribe.
The word 'Genghis Khan' resounded in the hall. 'Genghis Khan! Genghis

Temujin, aged 51, who was now Genghis Khan, stood up slowly and looked
down on the wolves and does. He was now the King of Mongol, the supreme
ruler on the plains.

The head of the Jaradan tribe. He shared with Temujin the mythical
ancestor Bodonchal, making him a blood relative of Temujin's. When
Temujin was eleven years old, Temujin and Jamukha promised to be brothers
by exchanging deer bones on the River Onon. Jamukha, who was 5 years
older than Temujin, was a talented nobleman of the plains. After
succeeding his father as the head of the tribe, he expanded his territory
rapidly. As a result, the Jadarans became the strongest power of all
Mongol tribes, surpassing the Taichiuds.

From ancient times, the Mongol tribes had been trying to form a coalition
of strong tribes.

They were always at odds with the Tartars who tried to prevent them from
forming a coalition, unaware of the Chin Empire's plot to keep them
opposed to each other.

It is said that all great men are also great lovers.

Temujin was no exception to this. It is said Temujin chose hundreds of
concubines from among beautiful women of tribes he conquered, Esui the
daughter of Tug Temur, was captured by him.

The Mongol word 'naiman' means 'eight'. The Naiman tribe, descendants of
the Greeks, possessed a very advanced culture. From ancient times they
knew of Christianity from the influence of the Uighurs of East Turkistan.

When the Naimans confronted Temujin's army, many remaining lesser tribes
sided with the Toktoga of the Merkits. Qudqua Beki of the Keraits and
Jamukha were the most famous leaders of these small tribes. However, the
Naimans were no match for the militant Mongols.

When Tayang Qan, the leader of the tribe died, his son Guchlug escaped to
the Kara Khitai Empire and conquered the Empire.

The Merkits were often attacked by Temujin. Tooril Khan and Jamukha.
But the remnants of the tribe were tenacious enough to attempt to create
a new Merkit tribe. Her father presented Qulan, the most beautiful of
all Merkit women, to Temujin.

She was a woman spirit, and at first she refused Temujin. She later
became Temujin's concubine, on the condition that he would take her to
the battlefields, never leaving her alone. Along with Borte, she was
most loved by Temujin.


Genghis Khan, who had completed the great undertaking of unifying all
tribes of the Mongol plains, was now planning to invade neighbouring

The Mongol's home land, which was surrounded by the vast Gobi Desert, was
infertile and not comfortable to live in.

He was destined to expand his territory in search of a happier place and
a better life.

The history of the nomads on the Mongol plains was a 1,000-year history
of repeated attempts to expand territory. But that was inevitable so
long as they stuck to their way of living - pasturage. Isolated from the
rest of the world, they became more and more conservative, which in turn
widened the cultural gap between them and other countries.

After taking an extensive view of the regions located south of his
territory, Genghis Khan set his eyes on Hsi Hsia, which appeared most
vulnerable to his planned attack.

Hsi Hsia had become independant in early years of the Northern Sung
dynasty, and since had maintained its independance for 160 years.
Although it lacked productive resources, its land was situated in a place
which blocked the traffic of goods between the East and the West.
Merchants from Western Asia who wanted to enter the territory of the Chin
Empire had to pass through Tunhuang and other big cities in Hsi Hsia.
The country's major source of revenue was taxes imposed on the goods
passing through the country.

At that time, the global trend was toward the end of the continued
stalemate that had existed between the great powers. Hsi Hsia was no
match to Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire, a new great power which had just

For the soldiers of the Mongol Empire it was the first battle with a
different race and they gave a fatal blow to Hsi Hsia's army. Hsi Hsia
surrendered and his country became a vassal state of the Mongol Empire.
Genghis's soldiers obtained a lot of camels and woolen goods. In this
battle, the Mongol army, which had thus far experienced only cavalry
battles on the plains, learned tactics for attacking castles.

One of the unexpected spoils of war was that Uighur, located west of Hsi
Hsia, was so intimidated by the Mongols overwhelming power that it asked
to be allowed to become a vassal state of the Mongol Empire.

Genghis's next target was the Chin Empire. From childhood, he had heard
of the affluence of the empire. On the other hand, he had never
forgotten the fact that Ambakai Khan of Mongol had been taken away to the
Chin Empire and died there after being put to torture. He prepared the
attack on the Chin Empire with scrupulous care. He had his soldiers
trained very hard. He had the structure of his men, their weapons and
all domestic roads improved. To control the public he put a code of
penalties in place even more draconian than its predecessor.

In March 1211, Genghis Khan ordered his entire army to make inroads into
the Chin Empire. Qulan was to accompany him in his long march to the
Chin Empire. Qulan had made Genghis promise that he would take her to
every battle, however fierce it might be.

The new army structure was designed to facilitate the flow of orders and
intelligence. Units of 10, 100, 1,000 and 10,000 soldiers were formed.
Experienced generals were appointed leaders of units of 10,000. This
structure was designed to allow Genghis's orders to go from one end of
the chain of command to the other with no delay.

Genghis Khan watched his soldiers crossing the Great Wall of China with a
thousand emotions. He said to himself, 'After all, we are all the
offspring of that grey wolf.'

It took three years to conquer the Chin Empire. Genghis Khan worked out
tactics very deliberately and implemented them very cooly. The Chin
Empire's fortresses were occupied by Genghis's men one after another, and
the soldiers of the Chin Empire were gradually destroyed. In 1214,
hundreds of the Mongol's mounted parties trampled the whole territory of
the Chin Empire underfoot. A peace treaty was concluded between Hsuan
Sung of the Chin Empire and Genghis Khan, although it actually meant a
complete surrender for Hsuan Sung. Genghis's army obtained an enormous
quantity of gold, silver, silk, slaves and horses.

Among the captives taken to Mongol was Ye Lu Chu Tsai. He was erudite,
well versed in astromony, geography, history, the art of war, medicine
and augury. Genghis Khan had this tall man called out and asked him to
predict the future of the Mongol Empire.

Ye Lu Chu Tsai said to Genghis, 'In the southwest are heard the sounds of
war drums. The time will come soon when your army crosses the Altai and
invades the territory of the Kara Khitai Empire. It will be three years
from now.'
Genghis was very impressed by his forecasting abilities and made Ye Lu
Chu Tsai one of his aides.

On one occassion, Ye Lu Chu Tsai said to Genghis Khan, 'The Chin Empire
was conquered by you, but that empire had a very advanced culture. Your
Mongolia has no culture. I think you have much to learn from the Chin

'I see,' replied Genghis. He had begun to think of building a friendly
relationship with Khorazm, an Islamic country in Western Asia.

Khorazm was famed for its advanced culture. Genghis thought he would be
able to obtain many things thus far unknown to him by trading with that

Immediately a mission was sent to the country. They took silver, musk,
jade, woolen goods and other precious goods with them. Upon arrival in
Khorazm, the head of the Mongol mission conveyed Genghis Khan's message
to Emperor Muhammad.

'We have conquered the Chin Empire and have all the Turks living north of
the Empire under our control. We do not want any further expansion to
our territory. Therefore, we propose that the Mongol Empire and the Kara
Khitai Empire initiate and maintain a peaceful relationship with each
other, and promote trade between both empires for mutual benefit. I
think of Emperor Muhammad as if he were one of my sons.'

Muhammad was offended at the last sentence of Genghis' message, but he
agreed in principle to Genghis' proposal. And trade between the two
countries commenced.

A big caravan was formed and it started for Khorazm carrying piles of

When the caravan reached the oasis city of Otoral a member of Muhammad's
family named Inarujuke attacked the caravan and plundered all the goods
it was carrying.

Genghis Khan was enraged to hear about the incident. Aware that Khorazm
was a highly civilized country, however, he decided to cope with the
situation politically.

He immediately sent an envoy to Khorazm to accuse Muhammad of his
treachery and ask for the extradition of the offender.

But Muhammad killed this envoy, too. This triggered Genghis' decision to
conquer Khorazm.

In June 1219, the Mongol army of 200,000 soldiers started on an
expedition against Khorazm. The grey wolves trembled with excitement.

It appeared that Khorazm was a country far stronger than Hsi Hsia and the
Chin Empire. They had no idea what was in store for them beyond the high
walls and the deep moat.

They had been told that the army of the country were equipped with arms
far more advanced than their own. The attack had been decided on after
many days of discussions. Genghis Khan had assured them, 'We are the
wolves of Mongol. We will win this battle.' No one doubted him.

Muhammad had ordered his army of 400,000 soldiers to take the defensive
and had been waiting for the arrival of Genghis' army.

Genghis Khan divided his army into four. Chagatai and Ogotai were
ordered to lead the first division and besiege Otoral, the city where all
members of his mission were killed by Inarujuke. Juchi was ordered to
head for Gendo in the northern part of the country leading the second

Three other generals were ordered to attack Bekenat leading the third
division. Genghis himself headed for Bohara leading the central

Inarujuke had tens of thousands of soldiers gathered in Otoral. But his
army was defeated in a short time and he himself was captured and given
over to Genghis Khan.

The second division led by Juchi invaded the castle of Gend and killed
all its residents after making ruthless attacks on the castle for seven
days and nights. The third division destroyed Bekenat and headed for

On the other hand, Genghis' division destroyed many oasis cities, large
and small, and besieged Samarkand, the gigantic oasis city, and there
waited for the other divisions to arrive. The other three divisions
arrived one after another, bringing with them a vast number of prisoners,
soldiers and civilians.

Samarkand was evacuated in a short time. Genghis Khan had the city
destroyed, treasures plundered and many residents killed.

Scared by the fierce attacks by the Mongols, Muhammad had run away to
Khorosan before the Mongol army approached Samarkand. Genghis Khan
ordered Gebe and Subutai to chase Muhammad, saying to them, 'Chase him
without taking any rest. Forgive cities that surrender, but destroy
those that resist and kill all residents.'

Muhammad flew to Nishapool, and then to Baghdad. Gebe and Subutai's
division went so far as the Chrimean Peninsula of the Black Sea on the
west and the middle reaches of the Indus River on the south, in search of

In 1220, Muhammad fell ill and died on a small kingdom island in the
Caspian Sea. Even after that, the two generals led their division
westward, destroying the kingdom of Kipchak, defeating the army of
Fuseboroto III of the Russian Principalities, destroying Sudakm, a
Geonese colonial city, and defeating the Bulgarians in the valley of the
Volga River. Genghis Khan ordered an administrative official stationed
in each of the occupied cities.

In 1225, Genghis Khan made a triumphant return to Mongol after five years
of invasions, destructions and massacres.

Genghis Khan was also at war with Hsi Hsia. In 1205, 1207 and 1209,
Genghis Khan attacked Hsi Hsia, but he was not completely successful.
Even the Chin Empire was far from being completely conquered.

The Mongol's way of conducting war was characterized by positive use of
the quick mobility of horses, surprise attacks and plunder. Because they
were nomads who had never had a single fixed dwelling, they lacked the
ability to govern the countries they had taken. Before resuming attempts
to conquer the Chin Empire, it was necessary to attack Hsi Hsia again.

Genghis' attack on Hsi Hsai was not accompanied by any military
difficulty. An envoy was shortly sent from Hsi Hsia to convey a
surrender message to Genghis.

However, Genghis Khan looked gloomy. He was now well advanced in age.
He had lost many of his men.

Some years ago Qulan whom he had long loved had died: At that time,
Genghis' army was in camp in the Hindu Kush Mountains on its way to
India. Her body was buried under a large piece of ice in accordance with
her last wish.

She must have been watching the future of Mongol lying silently in the
ice. Of Genghis' aides, only Subutai had returned safe from the long
expedition to Europe. Gebe had died in a village near the Aral Sea. He
was now sleeping in the ridge of a hill in the village.

An envoy from Kipchak came to Genghis. He told Genghis that Juchi, one
of Genghis' sons, had been ill in bed for three years and that in summer
he died in a village near the Caspian Sea. At that news Genghis mourned

Genghis fell ill and shortly his illness took a serious turn.

Aware that the time of his death was near at hand, he called Ogatai and
Tului and said, 'My task is drawing to a close. Our territory has now
been greatly expanded with the help of God. It will take at least one
year to cross it. To maintain this vast territory, you must not compete
with each other. Join forces to defend against your enemies. Maintain
friendly relationships with those countries which are friendly to you.'

Then he ordered his generals called out and said to them, 'It will be
difficult to directly destroy the Chin Empire. Attack first Sung which
had long been the enemy of the Chin Empire and then attack the Chin
Empire via Sung.

In accordance with his will, his death was kept strictly confidential and
his dead body was transported with utmost secrecy into Mount Burghan in
the upper reaches of the Onon River, where he had spent his boyhood, and
was buried deep into the ground. Every one watched his body buried in
the ground in silence. There was no phrase to express condolence in the
language of the Mongols.

After that, the trees near his tomb began to grow at so rapid a pace that
soon the tomb was completely covered with a thick forest. Now no one
knows where his dead body is buried.

The Uighurs, who had originally lived in the valley of the River Serenga,
moved to the valleys of the River Orkon and the River Tora in the seventh

In the beginning of the tenth century, their country Uighur was
established in Bishubaruk as a new kingdom.
The Uighurs got accustomed to cultures of oasis cities and benefited from
trade between the east and west.

They also engaged in agriculture and accepted Christianity and Buddhism,
in addition to Manicheism. Mingling with aborigines belonging to Indo-
European tribes, the Uighurs made themselves receptive to Turkism. Many
manuscripts of Buddhist scriptures, which were Uighur language
translations of Buddhist scriptures written in vernacular languages,
Chinese, and later Tibetan, were written by them.

By the time Hsho Sung became emperor, attacks by the Mongols intensified.
The need for defence against the Mongols placed a major burden on the
Chin Empire's financial resources. In addition, the Hwuang Ho (the
Yellow River) which had caused many floods since the reign of the fifth
emperor Hsei Sung had become more and more fierce, destroying farmland.
When the Mongols advanced southward and trampled even Shantung under
foot, Chin became frightened by their military power and sued for peace,
presenting one of her daughters to Genghis Khan. However, he had to
impose taxes on his people to cover huge military expenses required for
his empire's defence against the Mongols and he met with a tragic end.

In 1120, the army of Muhammad, the emperor of Khorazm, started on an
expedition to the East and defeated the army of the Kara Khitai Empire.
Since the Kara Khitai Empire was a Buddhist country, his victory over the
empire caused a sensation among Muslims. He was admired as the great
hero who had subjugated the impious idol worshipers. Although Muhammad
appeared to flourish in the early years of his reign, the fact was that
the empire's domestic administration was not carried out effectively.
Although he was a military genius, he was also a vain man fond of an
idolent and epicurean life. It was this that led to his ruin.



1155 Temujin is born.

1164 9 Temujin meets Borte.

1165 10 Temujin's father is killed by the Tartars.

1171 16 Temujin marries Borte.

1173 17 Temujin meets with Tooril Khan.

1179 24 Borte is captured by the Merkits.

1180 25 Temujin conquers the Merkits. Juchi is born.

1188 33 Temujin destroys the Taichuids.

1189 34 Temujin becomes the leader of the united

1194 39 Temujin conquers the Tartars in allience with
the armies of the Keraits and the Chin Empire.

1194 40 Temujin conquers the Merkits.

1196 41 Temujin conquers the Tartars.

1203 48 Jamukha battles with Temujin in the spring.

1204 49 Temujin defeats the Naimans on the plains of
Rakuda and captures Tatonga in the spring.
Uighur characters are formally adopted for
writing. In autumn, Temujin conquers the

1205 50 Temujin's army invades Hsi Hsia for the first

1206 51 The Khriltai (great conference) is held at the
upper reaches of the Onon River. Temujin
becomes Khan and he is presented with the
title Genghis Khan.

1207 52 Genghis' army invades Hsi Hsia for the second
time from autumn to winter.

1208 53 Genghis' army withdraws from the Chin Empire
in the spring.

1209 54 Genghis' army invades Hsi Hsia for the third

1211 56 Genghis' army makes an expedition to the Chin
Empire in the spring.

1216 61 Genghis Khan destroys the Merkits.

1219 64 Genghis conquers the Western region. In June,
his army is positioned on the bank of the
Irutish River. In autumn his army advances

1220 65 Genghis Khan conquers Otoral. In February he
conquers Bohara. In April he attacks
Samarkand, Hogent, Nishapool and Khorasan.
Muhhamad dies on a small island in the Caspian

1222 67 In April, Changchun Zhenren, a Taist priest,
visits the tent of Genghis Khan and preaches
to him at the northern foot of the Hindu Kush
Mountains. The city of Gazni is razed. In
June, Herat surrenders. Genghis' army again
attacks Merub, the capital of Horasan.

1223 68 Mukhali dies while invading the Chin Empire.
Genghis'army passes through Barghu. In winter,
it stays in Samarkand. Subutai defeats the
allied forces of joshua's feudal lords on the
bank of the Merka River.

1224 69 Subutai returns from an expedition to Russia.
Genghis' army is positioned in the plains of
Qulan and Tash.

1225 70 In February, Genghis starts for home. In
October, he conquers Hsi Hsia. Juchi, his
eldest son, dies on the plains of Kipchak.

1227 72 In August, Genghis dies and his body is buried
in a forest at the upper reaches of the
Kerulen River.


1115 ... The Chin Empire is established.

1126 ... Korea becomes a vassal state of the Chin Empire.

1127 ... The Sung is destroyed by the Chin Empire, but revives as the
Southern Sung.

1132 ... Le Yu Tai Shak establishes the Kara Khitai Empire.

1147 Second Crusade.

1156 ... The Hogen War breaks out in Japan.

1159 ... The Heiji War breaks out in Japan.

1163 ... The Sultanate of Ghorey destroys the Gazni Dynasty.

1169 ... The Ayyub Dynasty is established by Saladin.

1185 ... The Heike clanis is destroyed in Japan.

1187 ... Saladin regains the Holy Land from the Christians.

1189 ... Third Crusade.

1190 ... The order of the Teutonic Knights is created.

1192 ... The Kamakura Shogunate is established.

1204 ... Fourth Crusade.

1206 ... The Islamin Dynasties are established.

1208 ... Guchlug flees to Hsi Hsia.

1208 ... Sing Tsung of the Chin Empire dies and Eishoo becomes the

1213 ... A revolution occurs in Chunftao (now Beijing). Eishoo is

1215 ... The Magna Charta is promulgated in England.

1215 ... The Sultanate of Ghore is ruined.

1221 ... Military forces occupy Kyoto in the Jokyu uprising.

1227 ... Chagatai Khanate is established.

England, which was once in possession of one-fourth of the world's total
land area, did not develop within the confines of the country as Japan
did. In the first half of the 12th century, England was under the direct
control of Normandy on the Eurpean continent.

Fierce battles were being fought among influential noblemen hailing from
France for the throne. As a result, in the second half of the century
and after, they owned vast territories in France. It was at that time
that Henry II, the father of Richard I, came to the throne.

Henry II, who was the founder of the Plantagenet dynasty, was true to his
family line an energetic man of violent emotions. He never rested,
except when sleeping. When not at war he spent his days hunting. Back
at home, he could not sit quietly except eating.

Both Richard, who was third son of Henry II, and John, Henry's youngest
child, inherited a personality much like their father's. Legend has it
that the Plantagenet was a family possessed by an evil spirit.
Antagonism and treachery were the rules of the family, it is said.

Richard pursued adventures and wars all his life. The total length of is
stay in England while he reigned over England as its king was no more
than 6 months. True to his nickname of 'Richard the Lion-Heart', he was
extraordinarily fond of wars.
John was unrivalled in cruelty. On one occassion, his father said to him
half as a joke, 'I have divided my territory among your elder brothers.
So you shall have no share in it.'

It is said that his nickname of 'John Lackland' was derived from this
episode. He might have been hurt by these words of his father's. He
grew up to be a sadist: He used political assassinations regularly and
derived great pleasure from watching criminals hanged.

It was in 1189 that Richard became the King of England. Richard, who
inherited Aquitaine from his mother, made an attack on his father Henry
in alliance with King Philip II of France. Seeing that the tide was
against his father, John betrayed Henry and sided with Richard. Although
strong and energetic, Henry could not survive this surprise attack.
After Henry's death, Richard succeeded him as the King of England.

He gave John his share of the territory as the reward for his
cooperation. Later, as soon as Richard left England to join the third
Crusade, John laid a plot against Richard and succeeded to the throne.

On the other hand, Richard had a quarrel with Philip II while on the
Crusades and after that he put up a solidarity struggle. He started for
home unable to regain the Holy Land. But he was captured and shut up by
Heinrich VI of the Holy Roman Empire. John laid plan to extend the
period of Richard's imprisonment, in alliance with Philip II.

This matter was settled after the government of England paid a ransom in
the amount of 100,000 marks. However, the payment of the ransom imposed
a heavy financial burden on the government of England, as well its
people. This was the remote cause of alienation of many of King John's
subjects from him.

It was in 1194 that Richard returned to England. He had a fortress built
on the border in preparation for his showdown with Philip II. But he was
shot with an arrow and injured while at war with Philip II, and died in
south France.

As mentioned earlier, he stayed in England for only 6 months during his
10-year reign over England. He was able to give full play to his talent
as a military man, fortifier, and diplomat, thanks to the competent
government of England, which functioned smoothly and effectively while he
was away from England. But his talent as the ruler of England was to be
never tested. To him England was nothing more than a means to raise
funds for carrying out wars on the Continent and the Crusade.

On the other hand, John managed to take the throne, displacing the
successor to the throne designated by Richard, plundered a fiance of an
influential feudal lord of France, who was one of his subjects, and
married her.
Angry about that, the feudal lord appealed the case to Philip II. In
response to this, Philip ordered John to appear before the court, but
John declined. Philip ordered John's feudatory to be confiscated. This
was the beginning of the long-term hostilities between England and

Dissatisfied with the confiscation of his feudatory, John planned a
couterattack on Philip II in alliance with Otto IV of the Holy Roman
Empire and Baudouin of Flanders. In 1241, John challenged Philip to a
battle in France. But Philip's army defeated the army of the Holy Roman
Empire and John's army.

When John returned to England after being defeated in France, he was
confronted with a nation wide civil war. Now being completely
unsupported, he had to accept the noblemen's demands and promulgated the
famous Magna Charta.

John was so unpopular as the King of England that never again did any
king of England want to be named John. But ironically John gave the
English people the happiness which other kings have never given them
through his tyrannical rule. It was not until his reign that the English
nobility began to criticize the Imperial Rule, causing the concept of a
French controlled nation to give way to that of an independant English

Time, which flows defying any attempt to stop it and moves incessantly,
carries all creatures away to the bottom of the darkness... Anna
Comunena, the famous woman poet of the 12th century, begins her biography
of her father Alexious I with the above passage.
In the authentic history of the world, the Byzantine Empire was ruined in
April 1204 by the fourth Crusaders who occupied Constantinople. The
remanants of the dynasty ran away to Nicaea, where they built a regional
government. Later the Nicaea Empire regained Constantinople. But it
lacked the grandeur of the Byzantine Empire.

So it can be said the 800 year old Byzantine Empire was ruined in 1204.

In this game, however, it is assumed that the Byzantine Empire did not
meet with a tragic end in 1204. Under the reign of Alexious III, the
second emperor, such military commanders as Isaakios II, the former
emperor, Isaakios Ducas Comunenos, the supreme ruler of Cyprus and
Theodoros, the King of Philidelphia, play their respective roles. The
Byzantine Empire, with Constantinople, rules over the eastern part of the
Mediterranean and the southeastern part of Europe.

Anyone studying the history of the Byzantine Empire notices that it was
the citizens of Constantinople that plays the leading part in its

In 1182, Andronicos Comunenos (Andronicos I) rose in revolt against the
government, in alliance with the armed citizens of Constantinople. This
resulted in the establishment of the Andro nocos administration.

Andronicos I, who was now the emperor, felt himself charged with a
mission to perform a drastic reform. At that time, the Byzantine Empire
was a confederation of lands of inflential feudal lords. The Comunenos
dynasty, established in the 11th century, promoted the feudalization of
society by giving birth to an auntonomous class of noblemen.

As a result, the nobility had greatly expanded its power, thereby
dwarfing the emperor's power. Under such circumstances, Andronicos
implemented a bold reform. He selected able persons other than noblemen
for important positions in an attempt to restore the empire to one which
does not pay special attention to the social standing of families. To
this reform the noblemen resisted hard using their respective territories
as the base for resistance. They called on the Sicilian Empire for help.

On the other hand, riots were raised by citizens in many cities.
Andronicos' ambition to reconstruct the empire ended up in his attacks on
individual noblemen - a reign of terror.

It was Isaakios II that took over Andronicos I as the emperor. Unlike
Andronicos, Isaakios II behaved as a major representative of the
interests of the nobility, abandoning the empire's control over them.
This helped expand the nobility's power. Many revolts were started by
those noblemen who wanted to be autonomous. Among those noblemen was
Theodoros who began to call himself 'emperor' in 1187 and had coins on
which his name was inscribed made in Philidelphia, a town in the western
part of Asia Minor.

Isaakios tried to conquer Philidelphia, but failed to destroy the walls
of the town. He was forced to conclude a peace treaty with Theodoros.
Under the peace treaty, Theodoros was permitted to continue to control
Philidelphia on conditions that he stop calling himself 'emperor'.

During the reign of Andronicos, Isaakios Ducas Comunenos moved to Cyprus,
where he started his own regime. He declared Cyprus' independence and
had Cyprus' own coins made. Andronicos stepped down without touching on
the issue of Ducas' Cyprus regime. Isaakios II sent his fleet to Cyprus,
but it was destroyed completely by Andronicos' navy.

Cyprus was conquered by Richard II, the king of England, in 1191. Ducas
was captured and his Cyprus regime came to an end. When Alexious III
took power, the Byzantine Empire was on the verge of being split. The
Byzantine Empire under the reign of Alexious III was heading for its
ruin, although it had a number of able and powerful military commanders.

Your task is to restore the invincible Byzantine Empire by coordinating
the capabilities of military commanders and the backing of citizens of
the empire who aspired to be autonomous. Are you confident that you can
bring the golden age of the Macedonian dynasty back to the Byzantine

Minamoto Yoshitomo, the father of Minamoto Yoritomo, was a military
commander who had made a name for himself as a brave warrior in the
southern part of the Kanto Provinces. It was Minamoto Yoshitomo that
rose in revolt, called 'Heiji-No-Ran,' served to split the whole country
into two strong camps - the Heike clan and the Genji clan. Yoshitomo was
defeated in a battle with Taita Kiyomori, and was killed while trying to
escape to the Kanto Provinces.

Yoritomo, who was accompanying the party led by his father, got astray in
a mountain where it was snowing heavily, and was captured by a group of
warriors of the Heike clan while wandering on the Sekigawara plains.
Being a boy aged 12, he was spared from death. But he was condemned to
exile to an island named Hirugashima in Izu, where he was to live for the
subsequent 20 years. No historical records are available that describe
how Yoritomo felt while he lived in exile for the 20 years. It is quite
natural that there remain no such historical records. At time, no one
did even imagine that the young exile in Izu would grow up to be a
political figure to go down into Japanese history.

Yoritomo married Masako, the daughter of Hojo Tokimasa, in Izu. How
Yoritomo came to know Masako is unknown. It may be because Hojo
Tokimasa, who was working at a provincial office, was charged with the
task of keeping a watch on Yoritomo. Tokimasa stongly opposed his
daughter's marriage with Yoritomo: 'If this were made known to the Heike
clan, a serious thing would happen to all of us.'

In a fluster, Tokimasa married Masako to the son of Yamaki Kanetaka.
However, Masako, brought up as a daughter of a Kanto warrior, was a woman
of spirit. One night she escaped from the house of her husband, crossed
mountains overnight in the midst of heavy rain, and ran up to Yoritomo.

Now Tokimasa had to approve their marraige. At that time, Yoritomo was
31 years old, and Masako 21. Yoritomo was now living a peaceful and
happy life. At the bottom of his heart, however, he had never forgotten
the deep grudge against the Heike clan who had killed his father and many
of his friends. In 1180, Yoritomo at long last rose in revolt against
the Heike clan. However, the Heike clan was in full flourish, and
Yoritomo and his army were soon surrounded on all sides by the soldiers
of the Heike clan. He and his army narrowly escaped to Sagami. Based in
Kamakura, he managed to lay the groundwork for ruling the Kanto Provinces
with the support of Taira Tsunihiro and others. It was only 40 days
after his defeat in the battle of Mt. Ishibashi. It is true that he
could utilize Hojo Tokimasa's power influence, but it was a miraculously
quick return to power.

At that time, many groups of warriors in the Kanto Provinces were
dissatisfied with the arbitraness of the Heike clan, and were waiting for
the emergence of an ideal lord who would satisfy their needs and wishes.
It was against such a background that Yoritomo emerged under the slogan
of 'control of territories by warriors'. Furthermore, memories of
Minamoto Yoshitomo, who had ruled over the southern part of the Kanto
Province based in Kamakura, were still vivid in the minds of many of
those Kanto warriors. Thus a new regime was established in the Kanto
Provinces. Many Kanto warriors, from heads of influential families down
to low-ranking warriors, held ceremonies to pledge their loyalty to
Yoritomo, and they became immediate vassals of the leader in Kamakura

They were guaranteed security and the right to control their respective
territories, but they were required to pledge their positive loyalty and
service to Yoritomo in return for their privileges. The relationship of
lord and vassal thus formed was to become the basis of the organisations
of the subsequent shogunate governments. Revolts were raised everywhere
in the country. The ex-Emperor Takakura died of illness and at long last
Taira Kiyomori, the leader of the Heike clan, died from a fever. The
Heike clan which had lost their leader bagan to lose its power rapidly,
and the retired Emperor Goshirakawa, who had been shut up in a detached
palace, was suddenly in the limelight.

Kiso Yoshinaka had been expanding his power in the Hokuriku Provinces.
And there was a nation-wide crop failure, which was interpreted as
indicating the end of the Heike clan. The army and navy of the Heike
clan had become weaker.

Now it was an urgent necessity for Yoritomo to expand the foundations of
his new Kanto regime. His regime's influence was spreading all over the
northern part of the Kanto Provinces. Minamoto Yoshitsune, one of
Yoritomo's half brothers, who had already placed confidence in him, and
many other brave military commanders were now under the direct control of
Yoritomo. About that time Masako gave birth to a baby boy, who was
named Yoriie. It was in the next year that Shinoda Saburo Sensei
Yoshiro, who had been increasing his influence in Hitachi, rose in revolt
against the Heike clan. This attempt by Yoshihiro ended in failure, but
it triggered a chain reaction. After his death in Hitachi, Yoshihiro ran
away to Shinano to turn to Kiso Yoshinaka for help.

As a result, the relationship between Yoritomo and Yoshinaka suddenly
began to worsen. Under such circumstances, The Heike clan sent its whole
army to the Hokuriku Provinces in an attempt to subjugate Yoshinaka. To
this Yoshinaka resisted with his full strenght. On the strenght of
Yoshinaka's vigorous resistance to the Heike clan, the activities of the
rebel armies in the Tokaido and Kinai Provinces gathered greater
momentum. Warriors in the Tokaido Provinces, such as the Kai Genji
warriors, began to rush to Kyoto, rivaling each other for priority. The
Heike clan now had no choice but to leave Kyoto. Yoshnaka's triumphant
army and many others rushed into Kyoto, as a substitute for the army of
the Heike clan.

But, what they saw in Kyoto were hellish scenes in the ruined streets of
the capital. After years of famines, the streets were filled with dead
bodies. Kyoto was now nothing but ruins. What's worse, so many soldiers
were now going to be stationed in the capital, which had long been
suffering extreme shortages of foods.

In a moment, plunders and acts of violence were rampant in the capital.
Yoshinaka found himself alien to the customs of the noblemen's society.
Moreover, he was not competent enough to control the confusion. the
retired Emperor Goshirakawa, who had intended to make use of Yoshinaka's
power and influence, gradually began to give him up. Yoshinaka himself
felt that he was being isolated. Urgent to hunt down and kill the
remnants of the Heike clan, he had to start on an expedition westward.

This situation provided Yoritomo with a golden opportunity. The retired
Emperor Goshirkawa sent an envoy to Yoritomo, who told Yoritomo that the
retired Emperor would authorize him to rule over the Kanto Provinces on
conditions that he pay land taxes on manors and public lands.

Angered at this, Yoshinaka made an assault on the retired emperor and
forced the retired emperor to appoint him to the post of the
generalissimo for the subjugation of barbarians. This was just what the
retired Emperor had anticipated. This act by Yoshinaka gave the retired
emperor an excuse for subjugating nobody other than Yoshinaka. He
planned to get Yoritomo to subjugate Yoshinaka on his behalf. Yoritomo
Immediately sent Noriyori and Yoshitsune and their armies to subjugate

In 1185, he sent a punitive force led by Yoshitsune to subjugeate the
Heike clan in Dan-No-Ura. Thus all things turned out as the retired
emperor had wished. Next he set his eyes on Yoshitsune. He was
beginning to regret that he had given Yoritomo more power than he
deserved. Yoritomo, who was quick to understand, was soon aware of a
change in the retired emperors attitude towards him. He refused to
welcome Yoshinaka to Kamakura. He went so far as to establish shugo and
jito outposts in all parts of the country under the pretext of hunting
down Yoshitsune. This was actually his next step toward establishing his
Kamakura shogunate government.

Yoshitsune was to meet with a tragic eng in Hiraizumi in the Oshu
Provinces. In later years, the general publics intence aspirations
towards immortality of heroes gave birth to a belief that Yoshitsune was
alive. Some asserted that Yoshitsune became the great king in the
northern part of Japan after conquering the Ezo tribe. Others maintained
that Yoshitsune moved to the Asian continent, being called Ghengis Khan
there. There are no historical records to evidence these arguments, but
the legend of Yoshitsune is surprisingly convincing.

In 1192, the retired Emperor Goshirakawa died, and Yoritomo was at long
last appointed to the post of the generalissimo for the subjugation of
barbarians. Now he was able to give full play to his political ability,
controlling the activities of warriors and negotiating with the Imperial
Court on their behalf.

However, the fact that he killed Yoshitsune and other competent military
commanders of his family was to become the remote cause of factional
strife within the Kamakura sgogunate government. In fact, the Kamakura
shogunate regime collapsed from within 20 years after Yoritomo's death.
What politics should you formulate and implement? In the latter half of
the 1200s, Japan was to meet with surprise attacks by the grey wolves of
the Yuan dynasty - the offspring of Genghis Khan. Are you confident that
you can save Japan from the deadly attacks by the grey wolves. How long
is the Kamakura shogunate regime going to last?

WORLD HISTORY (1071 TO 1204)
The crusade movement which swept across Europe for nearly 200 years
beginning in the 11th century was a test for Europeans to attain their
true self-awakening. Development of cities, statism and cultures was
triggered by this movement. It originated in an incident in the Califate
of Baghdad which took place when the Byzantine Empire was being plagued
by its internal breakup. The Selijuks, nomads of Iran, rapidly expanded
its power and invaded Baghdad, the centre of the Califate of Baghdad. In
1071, the Selijuks occupied Asia Minor, and they also occupied Syria. As
a result, Jerusalem, the Holy Land, was isolated from the Occident. When
the Selijuks approached Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire, which had
long ruled over the Mediterranean region, The Pope of the Holy Roman
Empire thought that if he could take leadership in Europe taking
advantage of the situation, hw would be able to rule over the whole
world. And under his direction the first Crusade was organised with the
French Knightage at its core. This Crusade resulted in a great success
and created a sensation.

The Selijuk dynasty, which had nearly exhausted its military power in its
battles with the Crusade, was defeated by the Ryoh Empire on the east and
began to collapse from within.

The Khorazm dynasty which had emerged in West Turkistan took this
opportunity to expand its influence. In 1194, its army defeated the
Selijuk army and then the army of the Kara Khitai Empire.

The great victory for Muhammad, the emperor of the Khorazm dynasty, was
rated highly as Muslims' victory over the pagan Ryoh Empire. He was
called a second Alexander. He had an ambition to conquer China. In
China, the 200-year-long balance of power between the Tsun Empire and the
Ryoh Empire was suddenly broken by the Chin Empire when it destroyed the
Ryoh Empire. Le Yu Dai Sek, who was a member of the royal family of Ryoh
eascaped to East Turkistan, where he established an empire called the
Kara Khitai Empire. The plains of South Russia were under the control of
the Kipchaks, a nomadic tribe. Many nomadic tribes were rushing into
South Russia. The migration of nomads from east to west on the Eurasian
Continent was a sort of chain reaction.

After the great success of the first Crusade, the recovery of lost
territory by Muslims was remarkable. They occupied most of the lands
behind the crusader countries. It was Saladin, the most honourable enemy
of Christians, that became the premier of Ayyub at that time. As a
result of his emergence, Christians lost most of their occupied
territories in less than a century after their first success.

In Europe no significant efforts had been made to form a crusade. Each
of three great powers - Germany, France and England - had been too busy
reinforcing their respective political, social and economic bases to make
an expedition all the way to the Orient. At long last, however,
Frederick l or 'Frederick Babarossa' of the German Knightage, Philip ll,
the king of France, and Richard l or 'Richard-the-Lion-Heart' of England
took the initiative in forming the second crusade. Under the leadership
of the kings representative of the feudal Europe, this crusade was the
largest and the strongest in its history. But they incoorporated the
antagonism between them into this crusade. As Frederick Babarossa had
been killed in an accident, Philip and Richard started on the expedition
to the Holy Land together, but soon they were at odds with each other.
They behaved separately from each other. Richard occupied Cyprus on his
way to the Holy Land. They met in Syria and jointly made an attack on
the castle of Accon. As soon as the castle surrendered, however, Philip
withdrew from there. On the other hand, Richard went to another theater
of war and defeated Saladin's army. But he was unable to conquer
Jerusalem on his own and concluded a peace treaty with Saladin. As a
result, he obtained the right of way to Jerusalem for Europe. Satisfied
with the result, he returned home. However, it was clear that this
result was too trival for the crusade that was the largest and stongest
in its history. Richard was captured by the army of Heinrich V1 of the
Holy Roman Empire in Austria while he was heading for home, and later was
released after a huge sum of ransom money was paid.

In 899, Hungarians established a kingdom in the valley of the Danube.
They often invaded Germany, France and even the Italian Peninsula,
plundering many cities. West European countries joined forces to drive
them out. In 955, Otto l of Germany gave a hard blow to them and saved
Europe from the threat of their attack. Back on the Hungarian plains,
they were converted to christianity and began to work on the front line
of Europes defence against nomadic barbarians from the Orient.

Innocent 111, the greatest Pope since Urban 11, intended to have European
countries united for the noble cause of the crusade movement and then
rule over them. However, the crusaders made a surprising turn around.
They decided on an expedition by sea to Egypt and asked Venice for their
marine transport. They were unable to raise enough funds for it so
Venetian merchants proposed that they would offset the shortage if the
crusaders regained Zara in the Adriatic Sea, which had been taken by the
Hungarian king. The crusaders had to consent to this approval. This
enraged Innocent 111. He excommunicated them on the grounds that it was
impermissible to make an attack on a Hungarian king loyal to the Holy
Roman Empire. Thus, an excommunicated crusade started on an expedition
to the Holy Land, which was an unprecedented event. Zara was regained
easily, and the crusaders left Zara for Egypt. Surprisingly enough,
however, the leaders of the crusade, who had concluded a secret agreement
with the Venetian merchants, proposed to go to Constantinople, which had
been considered invincible surrendered in a short time. They made
Baudouin of Flanders the emperor of the newly established Latin Empire.
Although stumped by this, Innocent 111 congratulated them on the
establishment of the new empire, which he said would lead to a union of
the Western and Eastern churches.

Nasel the Califate of Baghdad. The word 'Caliph' means successor to

Qelekubad of Rum Seljuks Rum Seljuks was a great power emerging during
the golden age of the Iranian-Islamic culture.

Chilk of the Kara Khitai Empire Guchlug of the Naiman tribe assassinated

Buschi Khan of the Cumans Later, Juchi, one of Genghis Khan's sons,made
an expedition to subjugate Buschi Khan.

Saladin of Ayyub Hero of the anti-crusadse army. He was a fine example
of the Islamic Knight.

Sachsen of the German Knightage. The German Knightage originates in the
third Crusade. He did not perform great exploits in the Holy Land.

Philip 11 of France. He consolidated the foundations of the French
feudal kingdom.

Heinrich V1 of the Holy Roman Empire. The reason for his capturing was
his antagonism with an opposition faction.

Endore 11 of Hungary. His country was later invaded by the Mongol


1227 ... Chagatai Khanate is established. Genghis Khan dies. Ogotai
becomes the new Khan of Mongol.

1230 ... Ogotai Khan begins conquest of the Chin Empire.

1232 ... Tolui dies of illness while engaged in conquest of the Chin

1234 ... Ogotai Khan destroys the Chin Empire.

1235 ... Ogotai Khan builds his Empire in Karakoram. He sends an
expedition led by Batu to Russia. Kiev is destroyed.

1236 ... The Mongol expedition led by Batu heads for Europe for the
second time.

1241 ... Ogotai Khan dies.

1242 ... Batu's army invades Eastern Europe and defeats the allied
German-Polish forces. He conquers Hungary, Germany and

1243 ... Batu establishes Kipchak Khanate in Salai in the valley of the

1246 ... Calvini of the Franciscan order meets with Batu.

1257 ... Batu's army invades Vietnam but is driven out.

1258 ... Khulag invades Baghdad and destroyes the Abbasid Dynasty. He
establishes the Iru Khanate.

1260 ... Khublai becomes the fifth Khan of the Mongol Empire. He
concludes a peace treaty with the Sung Empire.

1264 ... Khublai transfers the capital to Daieo.

1265 ... Khulag dies.

1267 ... Khublai sends an expedition to the southern Sung.

1271 ... Khublai changes the name of his empire to Yuan.


1248 ... The Sixth Crusade is formed.

1261 ... The Byzantine Empire is revived.

1270 ... The Seventh Crusade is formed.


1274 ... Yuan sends an expedition to Japan, but fails in conquering the

1275 ... Marco Polo visits the capital of Yuan.

1279 ... Yuan destroys the Southern Sung.

1281 ... Yuan sends an expedition to Japan again, but once more fails.

1292 ... Yuan sends an expedition to Java.

1294 ... Khublai dies and is buried in a forest in the valley of the
Keruran River, where his grandfather's tomb lies.

1298 ... The Mongol army invades Vietnam, but is driven out.

1305 ... Ogotai Khanate is merged into the Chagatai Khanate.

1330 ... The Chagatai Khanate is divided into the Eastern Khanate and
the Western Khanate.

1333 ... Timour is born.

1335 ... Iru Khanate is divided.


1271 ... Marco Polo leaves Venice for the Orient.

1272 ... Uzan Hassan's army invades Asia Minor, but is driven out.

1282 ... The king of Aragon begins to rule Sicily.

1291 ... Egypt under the reign of the Malmuk dynasty drives out the
crusaders from Sicily.

1298 ... The Ottoman Empire is established.

1325 ... The Aztec Empire is established on the American Continent.

1337 ... The Bijanagar Kingdom is established in southern India.

1348 ... The Plague spreads over Europe.


1351 ... Timour's army invades Afghanistan.

1368 ... A large-scale revolt strikes a hard blow at the Yuan dynasty.

1380 ... The Mongols are forced to the north of the Great Wall of China.


1350 ... The Ayutthaya Dynasty is established in Thailand.

1368 ... The Ming Dynasty is established in China, destroying the Yuan

1369 ... The Timour Empier is established.

1390 ... Constantinople surrenders to the army of the Ottoman Empire.